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Publication date: 29 January 2021

Zhiyong Li, Xiaoxuan Zhang, Kailu Yang, Russ Singer and Rui Cui

COVID-19 has severely affected urban and rural tourism in China, which has been extensively reported in the newspapers. This paper aims to discuss the impact of COVID-19…




COVID-19 has severely affected urban and rural tourism in China, which has been extensively reported in the newspapers. This paper aims to discuss the impact of COVID-19 on urban and rural tourism at each critical juncture of the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the studies, measures and attitudes of various stakeholders toward urban and rural tourism and their future development.


This paper collects Chinese news reports as the research object and uses ROST Content Mining 6.0 and Gephi software to analyze and visualize the data for high-frequency words and analyzed the discourse of stakeholders within the newspaper text.


This study found that prior to February 20, 2020, the Chinese Government mainly focused on pandemic prevention. From February 21 to April 3 (before The Qingming Festival), resumption of work and production became the theme. From April 4 to May 1 (before May Day), a time-sharing reservation system was widely implemented and the differentiation between urban and rural tourism became more prominent. After May 1, rural tourism attracted greater attention.


This paper uses discourse analysis to understand the impact of COVID-19 on urban and rural tourism from the perspective of time nodes and the relationship between various stakeholders and predicts the development trends within urban and rural tourism. This paper enriches and expands tourism management knowledge in the face of major crises, providing valuable advice for managers and investors and makes suggestions for the development of urban and rural tourism.


COVID-19已严重影响了中国的城市和乡村旅游业, 报纸上对此进行了广泛报道。本文旨在探讨在COVID-19大流行的每个关键时刻对城乡旅游的影响, 以及各种利益相关者对城乡旅游及其未来发展的观点, 措施和态度。


本文以中文新闻报道为研究对象, 利用ROST Content Mining 6.0和Gephi软件对高频词数据进行分析和可视化, 分析了报纸正文中利益相关者的话语。


这项研究发现, 在2020年2月20日之前, 中国政府主要将重点放在疫情防控上。 2月21日至4月3日(清明节之前), 复工复产成为主题。 从4月4日至5月1日(五一节之前), 分时预约系统得到广泛实施, 城市和乡村旅游业的区别更加突出。 5月1日之后, 乡村旅游引起了更多关注。


本文通过话语分析从时间节点和各个利益相关者之间的关系的角度了解了COVID-19对城乡旅游业的影响, 并预测了城乡旅游业的发展趋势。 面对重大危机, 本文丰富和扩展了旅游管理知识, 为管理者和投资者提供了宝贵的建议, 并为城乡旅游业的发展提供了建议。


COVID-19 ha afectado gravemente al turismo urbano y rural en China, que ha sido ampliamente informado en los periódicos. Este documento tiene como objetivo discutir el impacto de COVID-19 en el turismo urbano y rural en cada coyuntura crítica de la pandemia de COVID-19, así como los puntos de vista, las medidas y las actitudes de diversos interesados en relación con el turismo urbano y rural y su desarrollo futuro.


Este documento recopiló informes de noticias chinos como objeto de investigación y utilizó el software ROST Content Mining 6.0 y Gephi para analizar y visualizar los datos de palabras de alta frecuencia y analizó el discurso de los interesados dentro del texto del periódico.


Este estudio encontró que antes del 20 de febrero de 2020, el gobierno chino se centró principalmente en la prevención de la pandemia en lugares pintorescos. Del 21 de febrero al 3 de abril (antes del Festival de Qingming), la reanudación del trabajo y la producción se convirtió en el tema. Desde el 4 de abril hasta el 1 de mayo (antes del Primero de Mayo), se implementó ampliamente un sistema de reserva de tiempo compartido y la diferenciación entre el turismo urbano y el rural se hizo más prominente. Después del 1 de mayo, el turismo rural atrajo mayor atención.


En este documento, se utiliza el análisis del discurso para comprender el impacto de COVID-19 en el turismo urbano y rural desde la perspectiva de los nodos de tiempo y la relación entre los diversos interesados y se predice las tendencias de desarrollo dentro del turismo urbano y rural. Este trabajo enriquece y amplía el conocimiento de la gestión turística frente a las grandes crisis, brindando valiosos consejos a administradores e inversores, y hace sugerencias para el desarrollo del turismo urbano y rural.

Publication date: 14 March 2023

Rui Cui

Restorative experiences relieve fatigue or stress, leading people to feel more energetic. Activation theory and the nature–dose framework hold travel duration as a crucial…



Restorative experiences relieve fatigue or stress, leading people to feel more energetic. Activation theory and the nature–dose framework hold travel duration as a crucial influence on restorative effects, yet these factors may not demonstrate a simple linear relationship. This paper, thus, aims to explore the relationship between travel duration and restoration based on a survey conducted during a seven-day holiday (the longitudinal data spanned two months); and explore the reasons for this relationship and the mechanisms for lasting restorative effects based on diary analysis.


Mixed methods were used in this study. Questionnaires regarding restorative effects were administered to 232 people at six time points before, during and after a holiday. Participants were also asked to keep a diary during their trips. Data were first tested for common method bias and were then processed via independent sample t-tests, analysis of variance and time-series analysis.


Restorative effects were consistently higher in the travel group than in the non-travel group. Additionally, an inverted U-shaped relationship emerged between travel duration and the restorative effects of a holiday; a moderate duration had stronger restorative effects than a duration that was too long or too short. More importantly, the study found that participants who traveled for a moderate duration (longer or shorter) engaged in non-judgmental challenging (relaxing) activities at least once. They also demonstrated greater eudaimonism (hedonism) and stronger, more sustained restoration versus the original set point. In addition, results revealed how travel activities, emotions, moderators and restorative effects were constructed.


Longitudinal data indicated an inverted U-shaped relationship between travel duration and restoration. Achieving lasting restorative effects requires effort and non-judgmental challenging activities for a moderate travel duration and frequency. The study uncovered mechanisms influencing the relationship between travel experiences and restorative effects. The results offer guidance for research on “travel prescriptions” and for the health and stress relief market.

Visual abstract

Inverted U-shaped curve for different travel durations and restorative effects at T3.

The non-judgmental challenging group showed lasting and stronger restorative effects over the next two months.


恢复性体验是指从疲劳或压力状态恢复到感觉更好或更有活力的状态。基于激活理论和自然剂量框架, 旅行停留时长是恢复效果的一个关键变量, 但两者之间可能并不是简单的线性关系。本文旨在(1)基于两个月的纵向数据, 探讨固定假期旅行停留时长与恢复效果之间的关系; (2)根据假期日记内容进一步分析以上关系产生的可能原因及达到持久恢复效果的作用关系。


该研究采用了混合方法。在度假前、度假中和度假后的六个纵向时间点, 对232人进行了与恢复效果有关的问卷调查。且参与者在整个假期中每天记日记。对数据进行了常见方法偏倚、独立样本t检验、方差分析和时间序列分析。


(1)在整个调查期间, 旅行组的恢复效果始终高于非旅行组; (2)旅行停留时长与恢复效果之间的关系呈倒U型, 适度的旅行停留时长可以得到更好的恢复效果; (3)适度(太长或太短)旅行停留时长的参与者更多地参与非评判的挑战性(享乐性)的活动, 表现出更大的实现主义(享乐主义)倾向, 并获得了更强、更持久的恢复效果。进一步地, 研究结果揭示了旅游活动类型、情绪、调节变量和恢复性效果之间的作用关系。


纵向数据分析表明旅行停留时长和恢复效果之间呈现倒U型, 要实现持久的恢复效果需要努力参与非评判的挑战性活动。这项研究揭示了旅行体验和恢复效果之间的关系, 研究结果为促进旅游成为健康和压力缓解市场的处方提供了理论基础和实践指导。


Las experiencias reparadoras alivian la fatiga o el estrés, haciendo que las personas se sientan con más energía. La teoría de la activación y el marco naturaleza-dosis sostienen que la duración del viaje es una influencia crucial en los efectos reconstituyentes que provocan en las personas, aunque estos factores pueden no demostrar una relación lineal simple. Así pues, este artículo pretende 1) explorar la relación entre la duración del viaje y la recuperación de las personas, a partir de una encuesta realizada durante unas vacaciones de 7 días (los datos longitudinales abarcaron dos meses); y 2) explorar las razones de esta relación y los mecanismos de los efectos reparadores duraderos a partir del análisis de diarios.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque (límite 100 palabras)

En este estudio se utilizaron métodos mixtos. Se administraron cuestionarios sobre los efectos reconstituyentes a 232 personas en seis momentos antes, durante y después de unas vacaciones. También se pidió a los participantes que llevaran un diario durante sus viajes. En primer lugar, se comprobó que los datos no presentaran sesgos por métodos comunes y, a continuación, se procesaron mediante pruebas t de muestras independientes, análisis de la varianza y análisis de series temporales.

Resultados (límite 100 palabras)

Los efectos reparadores fueron sistemáticamente mayores en el grupo que viajó que en el que no viajó. Además, surgió una relación en forma de U invertida entre la duración del viaje y los efectos reconstituyentes de las vacaciones; una duración moderada tuvo efectos reparadores más fuertes que una duración demasiado larga o corta. Por último, los participantes que viajaron durante una duración moderada (más larga o más corta) realizaron más actividades estimulantes no perjudiciales (relajantes). También demostraron un mayor eudaimonismo (hedonismo) y una recuperación más fuerte y sostenida en comparación con el punto de partida inicial. Los resultados revelaron cómo se relacionaban las actividades de viaje, las emociones, los moderadores y los efectos reparadores.

Originalidad/valor (límite 100 palabras)

Los datos longitudinales indicaron una relación en forma de U invertida entre la duración del viaje y la recuperación de las personas. Lograr efectos reparadores duraderos requiere esfuerzo y actividades para una duración moderada del viaje. El estudio descubrió mecanismos que influyen en la relación entre las experiencias de viaje y los efectos reconstituyentes. Los resultados ofrecen orientaciones para la investigación sobre las “recetas de viaje” y para el mercado de la salud y el alivio del estrés.

Publication date: 15 October 2019

Zhenzhen Zhao and Jiandi Feng

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the characteristics of spatio-temporal dynamics and the evolution of land use change is essential for understanding and assessing…



The purpose of this paper is to analyze the characteristics of spatio-temporal dynamics and the evolution of land use change is essential for understanding and assessing the status and transition of ecosystems. Such analysis, when applied to Horqin sandy land, can also provide basic information for appropriate decision-making.


By integrating long time series Landsat imageries and geographic information system (GIS) technology, this paper explored the spatio-temporal dynamics and evolution-induced land use change of the largest sandy land in China from 1983 to 2016. Accurate and consistent land use information and land use change information was first extracted by using the maximum likelihood classifier and the post-classification change detection method, respectively. The spatio-temporal dynamics and evolution were then analyzed using three kinds of index models: the dynamic degree model to analyze the change of regional land resources, the dynamic change transfer matrix and flow direction rate to analyze the change direction, and the barycenter transfer model to analyze the spatial pattern of land use change.


The results indicated that land use in Horqin sandy land during the study period changed dramatically. Vegetation and sandy land showed fluctuating changes, cropland and construction land steadily increased, water body decreased continuously, and the spatial distribution patterns of land use were generally unbalanced. Vegetation, sandy land and cropland were transferred frequently. The amount of vegetation loss was the largest. Water body loss was 473.6 km2, which accounted for 41.7 per cent of the total water body. The loss amount of construction land was only 1.0 km2. Considerable differences were noted in the rate of gravity center migration among the land use types in different periods, and the overall rate of construction land migration was the smallest. Moreover, the gravity center migration rates of the water body and sandy land were relatively high and were related to the fragile ecological environment of Horqin sandy land.


The results not only confirmed the applicability and effectiveness of the combined method of remote sensing and GIS technology but also revealed notable spatio-temporal dynamics and evolution-induced land use change throughout the different time periods (1983-1990, 1990-2000, 2000-2010, 2010-2014, 2014-2016 and 1983-2016).


Sensor Review, vol. 39 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288


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