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Article
Publication date: 3 November 2014

Min Li, Kaili Song, Kongliang Xie and Aiqin Hou

The purpose of this paper is to synthesise a disperse dye based on benzisothiazole and to characterise its crystal morphology, dispersing stability, to study the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to synthesise a disperse dye based on benzisothiazole and to characterise its crystal morphology, dispersing stability, to study the relationship between the chemical structure and the dyeing property of the dye.

Design/methodology/approach

The disperse dye based on benzisothiazole, 3-(3-methyl-4-N-ethyl-N-benzyl-phenyldiazenyl)-5-nitro-2,1-benzisothiazoles, was synthesized. The disperse dye based on benzisothiazole, 3-(3-methyl-4-N-ethyl-N-benzyl-phenyldiazenyl)-5-nitro-2,1-benzisothiazoles, was synthesised. The chemical structure of the dye obtained was characterised by infrared spectrum Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR), and the crystal morphology was observed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. Sodium salt of polycondensated naphthalenesulphonic acid (dispersing agent sodium salt of polycondensated naphthalenesulphonic acid [MF]) and a sulphonated amino polyether (anionic surfactant B600) were employed to grind and disperse the dye crystals. The dispersion property of the dye particles was characterised. Dyeing property of the dispersion system was also studied.

Findings

The dye formed spherical crystals that were made up of a large number of acicular crystals similar to spherical chrysanthemum. The crystals had warping crystal centres inside the spheres. The particle sizes of the dispersion with the mixture of B600 and MF had an uniform distribution and were smaller than that of the dispersion with only single dispersing agent MF. Dyeing with the dispersion system had an excellent reproducibility under alkalinic condition.

Practical implications

An alkalinic dyeing method for poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) with disperse dyes as a cleaner wet process had been developed. Such a process combined pretreatment and dyeing process using the alkali-stable disperse dyes and reduced the consumption of water and energy and improved production efficiency.

Originality/value

The crystal morphology, dispersion and dyeing properties of the synthesised disperse dye for dyeing PET fabric under alkalinic condition were discussed. This disperse dye has an important potential application in alkalinic dyeing method.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 43 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1900

OF all the delightful recreations classed, for divers professional reasons, under the general designation of work, which cause the librarian's existence to be regarded…

Abstract

OF all the delightful recreations classed, for divers professional reasons, under the general designation of work, which cause the librarian's existence to be regarded with envious eyes as one of the most joyous and irresponsible on earth, the most delectable is surely that of cataloguing ; and the moments when the cataloguer feels himself fullest of enthusiasm, when he knows it would be impossible to exchange his lot with any human being, are those spent in the absorbing occupation of correcting proofs, for then to the more sensuous delights of the game are added the zest and ardour of combat. Some day I may, with the editor's sanction, make a few observations on the pleasures of cataloguing in general: for the present I am going to consider only this final phase. A curious feature of the pastime or “work,” to adopt the conventional phraseology, is that some people are unable to see the fun of it and innocently suppose the term “work” to be meant seriously. Still, when one reflects that every sport is looked upon by outsiders either as a deadly form of depravity, or as idiotically tedious and laborious, it is clear that this feature is neither wonderful nor exceptional. Golf, angling, football, punting, mountaineering, even book‐collecting, are each looked upon as “work” by those who love other kinds of recreation, which may yet be in reality not a whit less arduous.

Details

New Library World, vol. 2 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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Article
Publication date: 17 September 2019

Siu-woo Cheung

The purpose of this paper is to examine the efforts of an ethnic Miao migrant worker association to recreate and engage with festivals both in the host society of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the efforts of an ethnic Miao migrant worker association to recreate and engage with festivals both in the host society of the Pearl River Delta and back home in Southeastern Guizhou province of Southwest China. It analyzes how and under what conditions the disadvantaged migrant workers collectively demonstrate and assert their cultural identity in festival activities, rekindling and strengthening their ethnic consciousness.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on ethnographic field data, this study focuses on the connections between migrant workers’ lives in modern host societies and their traditional culture back home. Special attention is paid to the temporal dynamics of migrant workers’ cultural identity and socio-economic development.

Findings

The leaders of the Miao migrants’ association created network linkages to channel the flow of labor, capital and culture between the host society and the migrants’ hometown, and made efforts to secure institutional embeddedness at both ends of the flow. Their use of festivals and related heritage as cultural capital has facilitated the cultivation of network linkages and institutional embeddedness for economic advancement and overcoming ethnic prejudices and institutional disadvantages.

Originality/value

By illustrating how the economic development has been imbricated with culture, this research enhances understanding about the role of network linkage and institutional embeddedness in the flow of labor, capital and culture between host society and home place of migrant communities.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 24 September 2019

Madjid Tavana and Vahid Hajipour

Expert systems are computer-based systems that mimic the logical processes of human experts or organizations to give advice in a specific domain of knowledge. Fuzzy expert…

Abstract

Purpose

Expert systems are computer-based systems that mimic the logical processes of human experts or organizations to give advice in a specific domain of knowledge. Fuzzy expert systems use fuzzy logic to handle uncertainties generated by imprecise, incomplete and/or vague information. The purpose of this paper is to present a comprehensive review of the methods and applications in fuzzy expert systems.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors have carefully reviewed 281 journal publications and 149 conference proceedings published over the past 37 years since 1982. The authors grouped the journal publications and conference proceedings separately accordingly to the methods, application domains, tools and inference systems.

Findings

The authors have synthesized the findings and proposed useful suggestions for future research directions. The authors show that the most common use of fuzzy expert systems is in the medical field.

Originality/value

Fuzzy logic can be used to manage uncertainty in expert systems and solve problems that cannot be solved effectively with conventional methods. In this study, the authors present a comprehensive review of the methods and applications in fuzzy expert systems which could be useful for practicing managers developing expert systems under uncertainty.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 January 2020

Huanhuan ZHang and Xueping Xiong

Using survey data from Shandong, Henan and Guizhou provinces of China, the purpose of this paper is to accurately measure the impact of rural residents’ financial…

Abstract

Purpose

Using survey data from Shandong, Henan and Guizhou provinces of China, the purpose of this paper is to accurately measure the impact of rural residents’ financial education on financial literacy.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper chooses one province from the Eastern, Central and Western Regions of China, namely, Shandong, Henan and Guizhou, respectively, and 1,565 samples are obtained through a questionnaire survey. First, the paper constructs a financial literacy assessment framework and, then, scores the financial literacy of the respondents. Second, using ordinary least squares, feasible generalized least squares method and forward search method, the paper estimates the impact factors of financial literacy level. To avoid sample selection errors and endogeneity problems, the authors divide the respondents into treatment group (participated in financial education) and control group (non-participating in financial education) and, then, adopt propensity score matching (PSM) to analyze the impact of rural residents’ financial education on financial literacy.

Findings

The results show that education level and risk level have significant impact on rural residents’ participation in financial education, and some unobservable abilities and qualities also affect their participation. Therefore, the process of rural residents’ participation in financial education exists, which gives rise to self-selection and endogeneity problems; financial education is promoting rural residents’ financial literacy, but the effect of promotion becomes smaller after taking into account sample self-selection and endogenous problems. Rural residents of female, higher age, single, higher education level, higher parental education level, agricultural type, higher family annual per capita income and lower risk level show stronger effects on their financial literacy level, if they participate in financial education.

Research limitations/implications

The survey sample was drawn from three provinces randomly but the site selection was not random. The implication is in rural China, financial education has positive effect on residents’ financial literacy level but considering the sample self- selection and endogenous nature, its impact becomes smaller.

Practical implications

The government should encourage rural residents to participate fully in financial education activities, especially those with a low educational level, low risk preference and mainly engaged in agricultural production.

Originality/value

The effect of financial education on financial literacy has not reached a consistent conclusion, and there is fewer quantitative discussion about this issue. The originality of this paper is based on the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development evaluation index system; this paper constructs the evaluation index system of rural residents’ financial literacy in China and uses the PSM method to accurately measure the effect of financial education on financial literacy.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 80 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

Keywords

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