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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2021

Hong Zhang, Kai Zhang, Marco Warsitzka and Roman Trötschel

This paper aims to review and synthesize the existing literature related to negotiation complexity and provides an integrative model to systematically identify and examine…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review and synthesize the existing literature related to negotiation complexity and provides an integrative model to systematically identify and examine factors contributing to negotiation complexity and how they affect negotiating parties’ behaviors and economic and subjective outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach was to combine relevant literature from negotiation in general and from negotiation complexity in particular and to develop and support an integrative model of complexity in real-world negotiations.

Findings

The literature on negotiation complexity and previous analytical frameworks are reviewed from a cross-disciplinary perspective. Based on the integrative review, an integrative model of negotiation complexity is proposed for identifying important complexity contributory factors. Six contributory factors are distinguished based on the three negotiation components – negotiation task, dynamic variables of negotiators and negotiation context. Their effects on negotiation complexity are examined and discussed with respect to four complexity dimensions (i.e. informational and computational, procedural, social and strategic dimensions). Finally, the effects of negotiation complexity on parties’ behaviors and outcomes are examined based on previous theoretical and empirical research and practical tools for managing negotiation complexity are delineated.

Originality/value

The integrative review and conceptualization of negotiation complexity are helpful for gaining a better understanding of negotiation complexity and its management in various real-world domains.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Kai Zhang, Tonghai Wu, Zhihe Duan, Qingfeng Meng and Qinghu Meng

For oil film thickness measurement using ultrasonic spring model, obtaining the isolated reflection from the oil film layer is the key point. While for oil film thickness…

Abstract

Purpose

For oil film thickness measurement using ultrasonic spring model, obtaining the isolated reflection from the oil film layer is the key point. While for oil film thickness measurement in thrust bearings with thin liner, the reflection from the substrate-Babbitt interface will overlap with the reflection from the oil film layer. This overlapping will render the ultrasonic spring model invalid. To obtain the isolated reflected signal from the oil film layer accurately, an adaptive method was developed to recover the overlapping echoes.

Design/methodology/approach

A genetic-algorithm-based support matching pursuit (GA-based SMP) was developed to provide the optimal echo number and initial parameters guesses automatically and efficiently. Then, the traditional expectation maximization (EM) model was used to fine tune the accurate results.

Findings

The developed method was tested using both simulated echoes and the overlapping echoes encountered in the ultrasonic oil film thickness measurement of thrust bearings. The results demonstrated that the developed method performed well on recovering overlapping echoes adaptively.

Originality/value

The work shows an adaptive method to recover the ultrasonic overlapping echoes. When used in ultrasonic oil film thickness measurement, it can help extend the application of traditional ultrasonic spring model to objects with four or more layers.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 69 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Hongtuo Liu, Fangwei Xie, Kai Zhang, Xinxing Zhang, Jin Zhang, Cuntang Wang and Hao Li

The shock absorber is an important component of vehicle suspension that attenuates the vehicle vibration. Its running state directly affects the performance of the vehicle…

Abstract

Purpose

The shock absorber is an important component of vehicle suspension that attenuates the vehicle vibration. Its running state directly affects the performance of the vehicle suspension. The purpose of this paper is to quantitatively study the relationship between damping characteristics and air chamber and oil properties in single-tube pneumatic shock absorber.

Design/methodology/approach

Combined with the principle of fluid dynamics and hydraulic transmission technology, the rebound stroke and compression stroke mathematical models, and damping characteristics simulation model are established to investigate the effect of the air chamber and oil property on damping characteristics.

Findings

Research results show that the initial pressure of the air chamber is the key parameter which influences the damping characteristics of the shock absorber. The change of the initial pressure has more impact on damping force, and less impact on the speed characteristic; the initial volume of the air chamber almost has no effect on the damping characteristics. The density and viscosity of the oil have certain influence on the damping characteristics. Therefore, selecting suitable damping oil is very important.

Originality/value

Using Matlab/Simulink software to build simulation models, its results are very accurate. The conclusions can provide a theoretical reference for the structure design of a single-tube pneumatic shock absorber.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 27 November 2020

Haoyue Zhang, Luqi Chang, Hongwei Zhang, Junyan Li, Zijiang Yang, Bingxuan Qiao, Zhenjiang Zhao, Chaofang Dong and Kai Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to study the mechanical and corrosion behaviors of selective laser melting (SLM) 30CrMnSiA steel.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the mechanical and corrosion behaviors of selective laser melting (SLM) 30CrMnSiA steel.

Design/methodology/approach

The microstructure, mechanical behavior and corrosion resistance of SLM 30CrMnSiA steel were studied by electrochemical test and immersion experiment.

Findings

The results showed that the microstructure of SLM 30CrMnSiA steel contained equiaxed fine (25.0 µm) ferrite and lamellar pearlite. The tensile strength of SLM 30CrMnSiA steel under the process parameters is 1,447 MPa and the elongation is 7.5%. As the immersion/salt spray test time increased to 15 days/48 h, corrosion mainly occurred in the local position of the sample and corrosion resistance decreased. When the immersion/salt spray test time increased to 30 days/168 h, the corrosion production covered the surface of the samples and the corrosion resistance increased.

Originality/value

The paper can guide the application and in situ repair for low-alloy steel by additive manufacturing.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 67 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2020

Hao Zhou, Kai Zhang, Lin Zhang, Jiamin Lu, Jin Li, Daquan Zhang and Lixin Gao

The authors have prepared the triazole film on copper surface by click reaction and explored its inhibition mechanism.

Abstract

Purpose

The authors have prepared the triazole film on copper surface by click reaction and explored its inhibition mechanism.

Design/methodology/approach

The protective film is assembled by immersing bronze in solution containing p-toluenesulfonyl azide (TA) and propiolic acid (PA).

Findings

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) indicates that triazole (TTP) film was formed on bronze surface via click chemistry reaction between TA and PA. It shows TTP film has a good protection for bronze in the atmospheric environment simulation solution. Quantum chemical calculation (QC) and molecule dynamics simulation suggests TTP molecule adsorbs on bronze surface via N and O.

Originality/value

This is beneficial to develop the corrosion inhibitors for the corroded copper alloys.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 67 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Kai Zhang, Tingting Liu, Wenhe Liao, Changdong Zhang, Yishuai Yan and Daozhong Du

The purpose of this paper is to obtain high-performance ceramics and enrich additive manufacturing of ceramic parts. Also, a new manufacturing technique based on slurry by…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to obtain high-performance ceramics and enrich additive manufacturing of ceramic parts. Also, a new manufacturing technique based on slurry by selective laser melting (SLM) was studied, which has some significant advantages compared to indirect selective laser sintering of ceramic powders.

Design/methodology/approach

To study the effect of laser parameters on the surface morphology and melting state of pure Al2O3 ceramics, laser power varied between 100 and 200 W and scan speed varied between 60 and 90 mm/s.

Findings

Experimental results show that Al2O3 slurry melts completely when the laser power is about 200 W and the scanning speed is 90 mm/s. Surface quality cannot be improved effectively by changing the scanning speed. However, surface quality improves when the laser power is 200∼205 W and energy density is 889∼911 J/mm3. Thermocapillary convection was observed during SLM. By changing the temperature gradient, streak convection and flowing Bénard cells were obtained during SLM of Al2O3 slurry.

Originality/value

It is feasible to produce slurry ceramic parts without binders through SLM. Increasing the laser power is the most effective way to fully melt the ceramics. Complex thermocapillary convection was observed during this new process; it may be used to produce crystals.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 November 2020

Abid Ullah, HengAn Wu, Asif Ur Rehman, YinBo Zhu, Tingting Liu and Kai Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to eliminate Part defects and enrich additive manufacturing of ceramics. Laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) experiments were carried to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to eliminate Part defects and enrich additive manufacturing of ceramics. Laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) experiments were carried to investigate the effects of laser parameters and selective oxidation of Titanium (mixed with TiO2) on the microstructure, surface quality and melting state of Titania. The causes of several L-PBF parts defects were thoroughly analyzed.

Design/methodology/approach

Laser power and scanning speed were varied within a specific range (50–125 W and 170–200 mm/s, respectively). Furthermore, varying loads of Ti (1%, 3%, 5% and 15%) were mixed with TiO2, which was selectively oxidized with laser beam in the presence of oxygen environment.

Findings

Part defects such as cracks, pores and uneven grains growth were widely reduced in TiO2 L-PBF specimens. Increasing the laser power and decreasing the scanning speed shown significant improvements in the surface morphology of TiO2 ceramics. The amount of Ti material was fully melted and simultaneously changed into TiO2 by the application of the laser beam. The selective oxidation of Ti material also improved the melting condition, microstructure and surface quality of the specimens.

Originality/value

TiO2 ceramic specimens were produced through L-PBF process. Increasing the laser power and decreasing the scanning speed is an effective way to sufficiently melt the powders and reduce parts defects. Selective oxidation of Ti by a high power laser beam approach was used to improve the manufacturability of TiO2 specimens.

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Nuan Fang Xu, Zi-Chen Deng, Yan Wang and Kai Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to study the dynamic vibrations of the tethered satellite system (TSS).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the dynamic vibrations of the tethered satellite system (TSS).

Design/methodology/approach

The energy principle and the variational approach are used to establish the dynamic equations of the TSS. By introducing new generalized coordinates, the equations are transformed into the Hamiltonian system. Then, the symplectic Runge-Kutta (SRK) method is used to solve the canonical equations.

Findings

The influence of the tether length on the dynamic behavior of the TSS is very important.

Originality/value

The dynamic responses of the TSS are obtained by using the SRK method.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 November 2020

Yan Zhang, Kai Li, Hai Yu, Jiang Wu and Bo Gao

This paper aims to present a new design for removable partial dentures (RPDs) for partially edentulous patients to improve the efficiency and quality of RPD manufacturing…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a new design for removable partial dentures (RPDs) for partially edentulous patients to improve the efficiency and quality of RPD manufacturing. Additive and subtractive manufacturing technologies and zirconium silicate micro-ceramic bonding in the aesthetic zone are used herein.

Design/methodology/approach

A case was presented. First, RPD digital definitive casts were acquired, and then digital frameworks with crown retainers and digital crowns were obtained by computer-aided design (CAD). The titanium alloy frameworks and resin crowns were fabricated by three-dimensional (3D) printing and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) processes, respectively. The crowns adhered to the crown retainers. Ceramage bonding was used to reform the gingival anatomy in the aesthetic zone during the fabrication of the RPDs. The finished RPDs were assessed by a clinician and delivered to the patient.

Findings

The RPDs were conventionally assessed by a clinician, were deemed to be accurate and satisfied both the patient and clinician.

Originality/value

This novel method provides a way to fabricate RPDs with a combination of additive and subtractive manufacturing technologies. The design of the framework was different from that of a conventional framework because it contained the crown retainers, and the traditional base retainer no longer existed. Ceramage bonding was used to replicate the gingival anatomy in the aesthetic zone. The new RPDs provided accuracy and were less time-consuming to produce than those produced with the traditional method. The new method enables the digital manufacturing of nearly the entire RPDs.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Kai Zhang, Qingfeng Meng, Wei Chen, Junning Li and Phil Harper

This paper aims to measure the oil film thickness between the roller and the inner ring in roller bearings by the ultrasonic method. The oil film thickness between the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to measure the oil film thickness between the roller and the inner ring in roller bearings by the ultrasonic method. The oil film thickness between the roller and the inner ring in roller bearings is a key performance indicator of the bearing lubrication condition. As the oil film is very thin and the contact region is very narrow, measurement of this film thickness is very challenging. A promising ultrasonic method was used to measure this film thickness, and this method was expected to overcome some drawbacks in other methods.

Design/methodology/approach

A simplified roller bearing only configured one roller, and an inner ring was built up to investigate this measurement. A miniature piezoelectric element is bonded on the inner surface of the inner ring to measure the reflection coefficient from the layer of oil between the roller and the inner raceway. As the width of the line contact region is smaller than the width of the piezoelectric element, a ray model is used to calibrate the reflection coefficient measured. The quasi-static spring model is then used to calculate oil film thickness from the corrected reflection coefficient data.

Findings

The results measured by this method agree reasonably well with predictions from elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) theory. Also, a dynamic displacement of the rig caused by the skid of the roller versus the inner ring was found under light-load and high-speed conditions.

Originality/value

This work shows that the oil film between the roller and the inner raceway in roller bearings can be measured accurately by ultrasound and shows a deal method when the contact width is smaller than the piezoelectric element width.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 67 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

1 – 10 of 532