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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2000

Kenneth D. Mackenzie

Companies often conduct general Employee Opinion Surveys (EOSs) to measure some features or outcomes of an organization. Converting data to results is routine and governed…

Abstract

Companies often conduct general Employee Opinion Surveys (EOSs) to measure some features or outcomes of an organization. Converting data to results is routine and governed by the design of the EOS and the use of standard statistical methods. However, as one moves away from results to their meanings or conclusions, and from conclusions to recommendations, other factors and variables come into play. These factors and variables are governed more by the context, the presence of constraints, the intuition of the decision makers, and the actions by engaged agents. Essentially EOSs produce ambiguous conclusions and recommendations because they are “knobless,” or lacking underlying processes which are controllable by management. The theory of the organizational hologram has evolved operationally into a family of Organizational Diagnostic Survey (ODS) forms which generate sets of results representing managerially controllable processes or combinations of processes. That is, the ODS provides a set of x‐axis variables that can be employed to explain variability in EOS results, which are viewed as dependent variables plotted on the y‐axis. Every item in an ODS form is “knobby.” The relationships among the questions and higher order results are causal and structured with known interdependencies. Combining ODS and EOS allows knobby analyses of knobless survey items.

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The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1055-3185

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1993

K.P. WANG and J.C. JR. BRUCH

A fully parallel algorithm for the solution of a finite element system using a MIMD (multiple‐instruction multiple‐data architecture) parallel computer is presented. The…

Abstract

A fully parallel algorithm for the solution of a finite element system using a MIMD (multiple‐instruction multiple‐data architecture) parallel computer is presented. The formulation includes a simple domain decomposer that automatically divides a finite element mesh into a list of subdomains to guarantee the load balancing. Furthermore, each subdomain is assigned to a processor of a parallel computer and treated as a sub‐finite element system with information exchanged through the interface between two adjacent subdomains. With this new algorithm, these sub‐finite element systems are solved fully parallelly as independent finite element systems, not only the computations of the interior nodes but also the computations of the interface nodes can be executed parallelly. Also, the inherently sequential Gauss‐Seidel and SOR schemes are altered into fully parallel iterative schemes. An implementation of this new scheme on an iPSC/2 D5 Hypercube Concurrent Computer reached an efficiency of more than 100% when compared with the sequential SOR scheme.

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Engineering Computations, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Prioritization of Failure Modes in Manufacturing Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-142-4

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Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2019

Raj Kumar Kothari and Priyanka Bhaduri

In the post-9/11 period, tackling the vertical and horizontal growth of international terrorism has become a major challenge for the international community, more…

Abstract

In the post-9/11 period, tackling the vertical and horizontal growth of international terrorism has become a major challenge for the international community, more pertinently for the liberal states. About three decades ago, Paul Wilkinson wrote a book entitled Terrorism and the Liberal State in which he made a hypothetical statement that the liberal states in today’s world were more vulnerable to terrorist attacks and threats than any other political system. Totalitarian societies do not provide any space to terrorism in view of the fact that this system does not recognize the importance of civil societies. However, the point to be noted is that in today’s globalized international order, terrorist activities are not only confined within the territory of liberal societies alone, rather it has engulfed many parts of the globe that includes non-liberal societies as well. Therefore, strengthening democratic regimes and values is not the solution to abolish terrorism. In this context, this chapter attempts to test Wilkinson’s propositions that liberal states are more vulnerable to terrorism than any other political system by making a comparative study between democratic and non-democratic regimes to identify the recent trends of terrorism.

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The Impact of Global Terrorism on Economic and Political Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-919-9

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Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2019

Hasan Dinçer and Serhat Yüksel

The purpose of the study is to analyze the risk of violent conflict with the global conflict risk factors in the Middle East economies by using an integrated fuzzy…

Abstract

The purpose of the study is to analyze the risk of violent conflict with the global conflict risk factors in the Middle East economies by using an integrated fuzzy decision approach. For this purpose, five different dimensions and 24 different criteria are defined by analyzing similar studies in the literature. The dataset is borrowed from the European Commission, and experts appointed for the linguistic evaluation of each dimension and criterion. Additionally, fuzzy Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) methodology is used to weigh dimensions and criteria and Multi-objective Optimization on the basis of Ratio Analysis (MOORA) approach is considered to rank the countries with respect to the conflict risk. Social dimension was concluded to have the highest importance of the Global Conflict Risk Index. Moreover, Syria, Libya, and Saudi Arabia were identified as the countries that have high conflict risk. Because these countries have high risk of facing conflict in the future, it is strongly recommended that they should primarily focus on social factors in order to minimize this risk.

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The Impact of Global Terrorism on Economic and Political Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-919-9

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Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2019

Moses Metumara Duruji, Felix Chidozie, Faith Osasumwen Olanrewaju and Favour Urenma Duruji-Moses

This chapter examines Nigeria’s relationship with her immediate neighboring countries in the fight against terrorism. It probed the challenges of national security…

Abstract

This chapter examines Nigeria’s relationship with her immediate neighboring countries in the fight against terrorism. It probed the challenges of national security following the internationalization of Boko Haram terrorist threats, particularly around the Lake Chad basin, and the responses of countries such as Cameroon, Chad, and Niger. These countries, like Nigeria, share borders around the Lake Chad and are the core contributors to the Multinational Joint Task Force (MNJTF). Nigeria is an English-speaking country (former British colony), while these other neighbors are historically French colonial territories. Hence, their political, cultural, military, and economic affinities are with France. The varying backgrounds have accounted for the challenges in the subregion including the Boko Haram insurgency and the efforts at military cooperation in tackling it. Consequently, these questions are examined: what factors led to the formation of MNJTF and what role has it played in the counterterrorism strategies of the country? In what ways has the nature of Nigeria’s relations with these countries impacted on the operation of the body? What are the roles of external powers such as France with her domineering influence on these countries in the war against terrorism and how has it promoted Nigeria’s national security interest? The chapter relies on documented materials to interrogate the questions and proffer necessary policy recommendations premised on the findings.

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The Impact of Global Terrorism on Economic and Political Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-919-9

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Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2019

Arundhati Mukherjee, Somdatta Goswami and Mainak Bhattacharjee

This chapter begins with a comprehensive review of the study on terrorism that has emerged in the last two decades and the consequences of terrorism in terms of economic…

Abstract

This chapter begins with a comprehensive review of the study on terrorism that has emerged in the last two decades and the consequences of terrorism in terms of economic theory. It aims to highlight the potential influence of terrorism on the distribution of military expenditure among different countries across the world. Moreover, the chapter seeks to shed light on the evolution of economic theories and models for explaining terrorism in a strategic environment to indicate the research gap in this field and presents an attempt to measure the impact of terrorism on the economic growth by considering the connection between the intensity of military expenditure made by a country and the security it faces as impinges by terrorist activities.

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The Impact of Global Terrorism on Economic and Political Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-919-9

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Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2019

Nidhi Chowdhary and Sourav Kumar Das

The threat of terrorism is not just limited to a particular nation, rather it has affected the economies of several developed and developing nations. In this study, we…

Abstract

The threat of terrorism is not just limited to a particular nation, rather it has affected the economies of several developed and developing nations. In this study, we have tried to analyze how terrorism has been sought to be tackled and how it can be tackled. In this context, we present the extent to which the method adopted by the USA after the 9/11 attacks, which is popularly called the Global War on Terror (GWOT), has been successful in eliminating terrorism from the world. Only qualitative methodology has been used in this chapter, and most of it has been derived from secondary sources. Through this study, we seek to show that the successes of GWOT have been limited in nature, in spite of tall claims. In fact, what the US has achieved by GWOT in the name of success is the killing of the leaders of some terrorist organizations, successful disruption of their sanctuaries, passing several legislations in order to launch counterterrorism operations, and the freezing the finances of these terrorist organizations by banning some of their charity-based organizations. This chapter lists the gains obtained as a result of GWOT and also highlights what may be called the failures of this global endeavor. Such a proposition aims at showing why GWOT is not only but possibly the best solution to eradicate terrorism. The unexpected outcomes, however, have been many, not only for terrorism but also for international politics, thereby impacting international organizations and also the third-world nations.

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The Impact of Global Terrorism on Economic and Political Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-919-9

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Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2019

Asim K. Karmakar and Sebak K. Jana

Terrorism has been practiced for centuries in different countries throughout the globe. The international struggle against terrorism started in the early part of the last…

Abstract

Terrorism has been practiced for centuries in different countries throughout the globe. The international struggle against terrorism started in the early part of the last century, and in 1937, the League of Nations concluded a Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Terrorism. It is now well established in customary international law that since piracy, slavery, war crimes, and crimes against humanity are so terrible and affect the peace, tranquility, and security of all States, any State has the right to try persons for these crimes, irrespective of their nationality or where the crime was committed. This is known as universal jurisdiction. Terrorism is not quite in that category, one reason being the lack of international agreement on a comprehensive definition of terrorism. Instead, universal treaties adopted by the United Nations (UN) specializes agencies and, more recently Chapter VII measures of the UN Secretary Council, have been the means by which international law contributes to the struggle against terrorism. This aspect is discussed in a Section. Besides, today, the impact of terrorism in maintaining law and order, in assuring peace and tranquility to law-abiding citizenry and in harnessing growth and development, both at the national and international level, is quite grave, gloomy, and alarming. Global terrorism has, in fact, become an unprecedented challenge to the human civilization itself. The present chapter tries to examine the nature of terrorism at the global level with special reference to India and proposes for formation of international laws and co-ordinations to combat it.

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The Impact of Global Terrorism on Economic and Political Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-919-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

Abstract

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Microelectronics International, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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