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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2016

Younghee Noh

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the current digitization levels of Korean libraries by identifying key elements of library services and measuring them for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the current digitization levels of Korean libraries by identifying key elements of library services and measuring them for conventional vs digital approaches and use.

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilized previous research related to digital libraries and consultations with experts to arrive at 13 evaluation elements and components within them to analyze. For the purpose of this study specialized libraries, college and university libraries, and public libraries were surveyed, and their responses analyzed to rate their current digitization levels vs more conventional approaches.

Findings

First, after determining the elements that characterized the conventional and digital libraries by analyzing different pieces of literature and consulting with experts, 92 factors were identified for each of the conventional and digital elements based on the axis which was composed of 13 items. Second, this study indicated that the libraries obtained one of the conventional or digital characteristics independent of the situation, rather than that the digital library was more effective than the conventional library. Third, in evaluating the chosen libraries used as the examples, it was observed that the libraries had more conventional characteristics among the elements of the digital and conventional libraries. Also, based on the axis used for comparison of 13 items, elements such as the next generation service, the SNS service, and the library program service were more conventional, but elements such as classification and cataloging, acquisition, and the organization were more digitized.

Originality/value

This study is the first study in the world to measure the level of digitization of the library. Therefore, hereafter, each library will be able to measure and determine its digital position based on these elements. Up to now, some research was performed in pursuit of extracting the elements of a library but it had relied solely on literature review. Comprehensive research had never been performed as in this study.

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1986

Y. CHERRUAULT and J.F. PROST

This paper deals with mathematical and numerical methods for defining optimal therapeutics associated with drugs action models. To obtain the optimal control corresponding…

Abstract

This paper deals with mathematical and numerical methods for defining optimal therapeutics associated with drugs action models. To obtain the optimal control corresponding to some criteria analytical and numerical methods are proposed. An original optimization technique giving the global optimum will be described and used. It is based on a space filling curve idea. A new variant of the dynamic programming method is also proposed, this leads to a simple optimization problem.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Prioritization of Failure Modes in Manufacturing Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-142-4

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Book part
Publication date: 16 May 2013

Johannes Novy and Deike Peters

The purpose of the chapter is twofold. First, it discusses the causes and characteristics of the current proliferation of rail station area redevelopment megaprojects…

Abstract

The purpose of the chapter is twofold. First, it discusses the causes and characteristics of the current proliferation of rail station area redevelopment megaprojects around the globe, revealing them to be an important subset of the new generation of megaprojects discussed in this volume. Second, it offers a detailed and timely account of recent struggles surrounding “Stuttgart 21,” a massive, hugely controversial rail station redevelopment megaproject in Southern Germany, drawing lessons from the controversy over Stuttgart 21 for urban megaprojects more generally. This study is a qualitative case study analysis that involved interviews and document analysis. The experience of “Stuttgart 21” validates previous criticisms of megaprojects regarding transparency and public accountability in decision-making, environmental challenges, and cost-overruns. The political conflicts over “Stuttgart 21” are intimately tied to fundamental disagreements over future urban development and transportation policy, the costs and benefits of multibillion Euro megaprojects, and related democratic decision-making procedures. Rail stations emerge as an important, as-of-yet underexplored subset of urban megaprojects. Rail stations, especially those serving new high-speed rail corridors, are crucial development nodes within complex postindustrial urban–regional restructuring processes. But they also have a distinct character and historical identity. As the mass protests in Stuttgart show, they also clearly serve important identification functions in citizens’ lives.

Details

Urban Megaprojects: A Worldwide View
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-593-7

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 18 April 2015

Flavio Felice and Massimiliano Vatiero

It is often “assumed,” even among well-informed lawyers and economists, that European competition law is an emulation of the US antitrust law because of American influence…

Abstract

It is often “assumed,” even among well-informed lawyers and economists, that European competition law is an emulation of the US antitrust law because of American influence on European political and economic debates after the Second World War. However, such an assumption is disputable: in accordance with Professor Gerber, the competition law in Europe is an indigenous product based primarily on ideas developed in Germany by the so-called ordoliberal thought. In this respect, the article 102 TFEU may be considered a proof. The aims of this article are to furnish a critical examination of ordoliberal ideas of anticompetitive conducts and underline the relevance of ordoliberal thought for the development of the modern European competition law.

Details

A Research Annual
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-154-1

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 18 March 2014

Joshua P. Davis

This article responds to James Keyte, Paul Eckles, and Karen Lent’s article “From Hydrogen Peroxide to Comcast: The New Rigor in Antitrust Class Actions” (“The New Rigor

Abstract

This article responds to James Keyte, Paul Eckles, and Karen Lent’s article “From Hydrogen Peroxide to Comcast: The New Rigor in Antitrust Class Actions” (“The New Rigor”). It argues that The New Rigor offers valuable strategic advice to defense counsel – and insight into defense counsel’s strategic thinking – but is much less effective as an objective statement of the law or a normative argument for legal reform. In the parlance that I adopt, The New Rigor succeeds in the role of coach but much less so in the roles of commentator and critic.

Details

The Law and Economics of Class Actions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-951-5

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 23 November 2015

Elisabetta Ottoz and Franco Cugno

We study how different rules for allocating litigation costs impact on royalty negotiation when a non-practicing patent holder asserts its patent against a product developer.

Abstract

Purpose

We study how different rules for allocating litigation costs impact on royalty negotiation when a non-practicing patent holder asserts its patent against a product developer.

Methodology/approach

A theoretical framework is proposed which distinguishes between three legal-cost allocation systems: the American system, where each party bears its own costs; the British system, where the loser incurs all costs; and the system favoring the defendant, where the defendant pays its own costs if it loses and nothing otherwise. The model considers both flat lawyer fees and contingency fees.

Findings

We first determine conditions under which, in the assumed contexts, the American system is preferable to the British one. Successively, we show that the less usual system favoring the defendant proves to be an interesting alternative.

Originality/value

In this way, in addition to extend the standard model of patent holdup, we furnish an analytical treatment of recent legislative proposals, such as the Saving High-Tech Innovators from Egregious Legal Disputes (SHIELD) Act of 2013.

Details

Economic and Legal Issues in Competition, Intellectual Property, Bankruptcy, and the Cost of Raising Children
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-562-8

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 18 March 2014

Kevin W. Caves and Hal J. Singer

In antitrust class-action litigation, courts are increasingly unlikely to accept the presumption that all class members were harmed by price-fixing among a group of firms…

Abstract

In antitrust class-action litigation, courts are increasingly unlikely to accept the presumption that all class members were harmed by price-fixing among a group of firms or by exclusionary behavior by a single firm. Econometric methods typically applied in antitrust and other settings estimate the average effect of the challenged conduct, but do not inform impact for individual class members. We present classwide econometric methods and statistical tests for detecting the existence (or lack thereof) of common impact and determining what proportion (if any) of the proposed class suffered injury in many class actions. We conclude that econometric tools can meaningfully inform the legal process, even when courts demand proof of common impact.

Details

The Law and Economics of Class Actions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-951-5

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 24 May 2021

James Langenfeld and Frank Fagan

This issue of Research in Law and Economics covers several areas of important research by a variety of international scholars. It contains technical papers on the…

Abstract

This issue of Research in Law and Economics covers several areas of important research by a variety of international scholars. It contains technical papers on the appropriate way to estimate damages in patent disputes, as well as methods for evaluating relevant markets and vertically integrated firms when determining the competitive effects of mergers and other actions. There are also papers on the implication of different legal processes, regulations, and liability rules on consumer welfare, which range from the impact of delays in legal decisions in labor cases in France to issues of criminal liability related to the use of artificial intelligence.

Details

The Law and Economics of Patent Damages, Antitrust, and Legal Process
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-024-5

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Book part
Publication date: 24 May 2021

Wenqing Li, Nathan Petek and Hassan Faghani

When products are differentiated, applying the standard critical loss formula to assess whether it is profitable for a hypothetical monopolist to impose a common price…

Abstract

When products are differentiated, applying the standard critical loss formula to assess whether it is profitable for a hypothetical monopolist to impose a common price increase can lead to delineating an antitrust market that is too broad by setting a critical loss threshold that is too low. This error is particularly likely to occur when the products exhibit very different per-unit profits, own price elasticities, and cross price elasticities. In particular, different per-unit profits are a necessary condition for this error to occur and this difference is more likely to be driven by an asymmetry in prices than by an asymmetry in costs when own price elasticities are moderate in magnitude. In contrast, differences in the quantity sold of each product do not tend to lead to errors in market definition. Given the issues associated with the standard critical loss analysis, critical loss analysis with asymmetric price increases and the gross upward pricing pressure index are practical alternative approaches for conducting market definition analysis when products in a candidate market are differentiated.

Details

The Law and Economics of Patent Damages, Antitrust, and Legal Process
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-024-5

Keywords

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