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State environmental agencies have been organized independently with a variety of structural schemes, and are responsible for the bulk of administration of federal…
State environmental agencies have been organized independently with a variety of structural schemes, and are responsible for the bulk of administration of federal environmental policy, such as the Clean Air Act. Using statistical models of air quality outcomes, this research compares three competing typologies for capturing agency differences: Ringquist (1993b), Lester (1990), and Wilson (1989). The findings indicate the most commonly used measure of organization, Ringquist (1993b), may be the weakest in comparison. Additionally, both Lester (1990) and Wilson (1989) show interesting advantages in comparison to each other. The findings provide some interesting insights into the difficult task of measuring organization.
In the past, the RAF’s approach to corrosion was reactive: corrosion occurred, was identified and then rectified. Such a strategy is no longer acceptable, as corrosion…
In the past, the RAF’s approach to corrosion was reactive: corrosion occurred, was identified and then rectified. Such a strategy is no longer acceptable, as corrosion rectification is costly both in terms of material and aircraft availability. More importantly, as escalating replacement costs force us to retain aircraft in service for ever‐longer periods, the threat posed to structural integrity by corrosion and repeated corrosion repairs can no longer be tolerated. Consequently, the RAF has had no option but to develop a policy of corrosion prevention. Aerospace Maintenance, Development and Support, part of Headquarters Royal Air Force Logistics Command, has therefore been actively involved with the evaluation and trialling of a range of important corrosion prevention techniques that are compatible with the RAF’s current stance. Aircraft washing and rinsing practices have been reviewed to confirm their effectiveness, and trials have shown that dehumidified air permeates readily through a full‐size airframe, reducing relative humidity and arresting the rate of corrosion. From our work we have concluded that effective washing should be supported, where possible, by freshwater rinsing, and, if a cost effective system can be developed, structural dehumidification should also be practised. Notwithstanding a policy of corrosion prevention, we know that we operate aircraft that have already accumulated corrosion damage which has to be located and recorded. Non‐destructive testing is employed widely, and the use of information derived from the process to populate structural databases is being explored. Additionally, we are involved with refining the methodologies associated with structural inspections to ensure the ongoing integrity of our ageing aircraft fleets.
Importance sampling is a popular Monte Carlo method used in a variety of areas in econometrics. When the variance of the importance sampling estimator is infinite, the…
Importance sampling is a popular Monte Carlo method used in a variety of areas in econometrics. When the variance of the importance sampling estimator is infinite, the central limit theorem does not apply and estimates tend to be erratic even when the simulation size is large. The authors consider asymptotic trimming in such a setting. Specifically, the authors propose a bias-corrected tail-trimmed estimator such that it is consistent and has finite variance. The authors show that the proposed estimator is asymptotically normal, and has good finite-sample properties in a Monte Carlo study.
It has often been said that a great part of the strength of Aslib lies in the fact that it brings together those whose experience has been gained in many widely differing fields but who have a common interest in the means by which information may be collected and disseminated to the greatest advantage. Lists of its members have, therefore, a more than ordinary value since they present, in miniature, a cross‐section of institutions and individuals who share this special interest.
Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to economic and non-economic activities. Researchers have increasingly focused on the adoption and use of ICT by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as the economic development of a country is largely dependent on them. Following the success of ICT utilisation in SMEs in developed countries, many developing countries are looking to utilise the potential of the technology to develop SMEs. Past studies have shown that the contribution of ICT to the performance of SMEs is not clear and certain. Thus, it is crucial to determine the effectiveness of ICT in generating firm performance since this has implications for SMEs’ expenditure on the technology. This research examines the diffusion of ICT among SMEs with respect to the typical stages from innovation adoption to post-adoption, by analysing the actual usage of ICT and value creation. The mediating effects of integration and utilisation on SME performance are also studied. Grounded in the innovation diffusion literature, institutional theory and resource-based theory, this study has developed a comprehensive integrated research model focused on the research objectives. Following a positivist research paradigm, this study employs a mixed-method research approach. A preliminary conceptual framework is developed through an extensive literature review and is refined by results from an in-depth field study. During the field study, a total of 11 SME owners or decision-makers were interviewed. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using NVivo 10 to refine the model to develop the research hypotheses. The final research model is composed of 30 first-order and five higher-order constructs which involve both reflective and formative measures. Partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) is employed to test the theoretical model with a cross-sectional data set of 282 SMEs in Bangladesh. Survey data were collected using a structured questionnaire issued to SMEs selected by applying a stratified random sampling technique. The structural equation modelling utilises a two-step procedure of data analysis. Prior to estimating the structural model, the measurement model is examined for construct validity of the study variables (i.e. convergent and discriminant validity).
The estimates show cognitive evaluation as an important antecedent for expectation which is shaped primarily by the entrepreneurs’ beliefs (perception) and also influenced by the owners’ innovativeness and culture. Culture further influences expectation. The study finds that facilitating condition, environmental pressure and country readiness are important antecedents of expectation and ICT use. The results also reveal that integration and the degree of ICT utilisation significantly affect SMEs’ performance. Surprisingly, the findings do not reveal any significant impact of ICT usage on performance which apparently suggests the possibility of the ICT productivity paradox. However, the analysis finally proves the non-existence of the paradox by demonstrating the mediating role of ICT integration and degree of utilisation explain the influence of information technology (IT) usage on firm performance which is consistent with the resource-based theory. The results suggest that the use of ICT can enhance SMEs’ performance if the technology is integrated and properly utilised. SME owners or managers, interested stakeholders and policy makers may follow the study’s outcomes and focus on ICT integration and degree of utilisation with a view to attaining superior organisational performance.
This study urges concerned business enterprises and government to look at the environmental and cultural factors with a view to achieving ICT usage success in terms of enhanced firm performance. In particular, improving organisational practices and procedures by eliminating the traditional power distance inside organisations and implementing necessary rules and regulations are important actions for managing environmental and cultural uncertainties. The application of a Bengali user interface may help to ensure the productivity of ICT use by SMEs in Bangladesh. Establishing a favourable national technology infrastructure and legal environment may contribute positively to improving the overall situation. This study also suggests some changes and modifications in the country’s existing policies and strategies. The government and policy makers should undertake mass promotional programs to disseminate information about the various uses of computers and their contribution in developing better organisational performance. Organising specialised training programs for SME capacity building may succeed in attaining the motivation for SMEs to use ICT. Ensuring easy access to the technology by providing loans, grants and subsidies is important. Various stakeholders, partners and related organisations should come forward to support government policies and priorities in order to ensure the productive use of ICT among SMEs which finally will help to foster Bangladesh’s economic development.