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Book part
Publication date: 3 September 2015

Henriikka Weir and Catherine Kaukinen

The present study uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Ad Health) to evaluate the effects of exposure to violent victimization in childhood…

Abstract

Purpose

The present study uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Ad Health) to evaluate the effects of exposure to violent victimization in childhood on adolescent delinquency and subsequent adult criminality.

Methodology/approach

Using Longitudinal Latent Class Analysis (LLCA), the present study investigates whether there are distinct and diverse longitudinal delinquency trajectories among those exposed to violence in childhood.

Findings

Findings from the current study indicate that there are three distinct trajectories of delinquency and offending from age 14 to 27 for both males and females exposed to violence in childhood. Further, it appears that violent victimization in childhood bridges the gender gap in delinquency between males and females. Thus, childhood violent victimization, and the fact that females are victimized by parents/caregivers and romantic partners at higher rates than males, might be partially responsible in explaining the narrowing of the gender gap between male and female offending in the recent decades. At the same time, childhood violent victimization also seems to impact males and females in somewhat different ways. Practically, all female victims stop offending by their late 20s, whereas a fairly large proportion of males exposed to violent victimization in childhood steadily continue offending.

Research limitations/implications

Although this study was able to identify the diverse impacts of violence exposure on engagement in subsequent delinquency, it did not examine the unique contributions of each type of violence on adolescent outcomes or the chronicity of exposure to each of these types of violent victimization. We were also not able to measure all types of violence experiences in childhood, such as exposure to parents’ or caregivers’ intimate partner violence.

Social implications

While early prevention would be the most desirable option for both genders for the most optimal outcome, the retrospective intervention and treatment programs should be gender-specific. For males, they should heavily focus on providing alternative ways to cope with anger, impulse control and frustration, as well as teach empathy, cognitive problem solving skills, verbal communication skills, and tangible life and job skills. For females, most successful intervention and treatment programs may focus on helping the girls through a transition from adolescence to adulthood while providing mental health, medical, and family support services.

Originality/value

The paper uses a unique methodological approach to identify distinct and diverse longitudinal delinquency trajectories. The findings demonstrate how more resilient individuals (in terms of externalizing behaviors) can bring down the mean scores of delinquency even though many other individuals can be severely affected by violence exposure in childhood.

Details

Violence and Crime in the Family: Patterns, Causes, and Consequences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-262-7

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 13 July 2016

Susan R. Fisk

The goal of this chapter is to both provide a sociological explanation for gender differences in risk-taking behavior and to explain how such gender differences in…

Abstract

Purpose

The goal of this chapter is to both provide a sociological explanation for gender differences in risk-taking behavior and to explain how such gender differences in behavior may contribute to women’s underrepresentation at the top of hierarchies.

Methodology/approach

I synthesize relevant research findings from the fields of social psychology, economics, psychology, decisions science, and sociology.

Originality/value

I argue that risk-taking is a gendered action due to both prescriptive and descriptive gender stereotypes. The fact that risk-taking is a gendered action offers sociological insights as to why women take fewer risks than men. First, women may rationally choose to take fewer risks, given that risk-taking is less rewarding for them. Second, the aforementioned gender stereotypes may cause institutional gatekeepers to give women fewer opportunities to take risks.

Sociologists should care about this phenomenon because large rewards are attached to successful risk-taking behavior. Thus, if men as a group take more successful risks than women as a group – simply because they take more risks, and thus by chance experience more successful risks – then more men than women will experience upward mobility caused by risk-taking.

Social implications

Gender differences in risk-taking behavior likely depress the upward mobility of women and are a contributing factor to the dearth of women in top positions. In this era of falling formal barriers and women’s educational gains, gender differences in risk-taking behavior are likely of increasing importance for understanding the inequalities in hierarchies in U.S. society.

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-041-1

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 17 August 2022

Tawannah G. Allen

On February 18, 2021, the NASA Perseverance rover traveled 292.5 million miles, safely landing on Mars, proving the power of science, technology, engineering, and…

Abstract

On February 18, 2021, the NASA Perseverance rover traveled 292.5 million miles, safely landing on Mars, proving the power of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in accomplishing such a historical feat. Glaringly absent from the photos, tweets, and commentaries showing NASA's team celebrations, however, are African American males. Their absence gives rise to the question “Where are the Black males?” – not just in NASA's celebratory photos, but in STEM-related careers altogether. Perhaps even more important questions are “What K-12 systems are in place that exclude Black males from being prepared – academically and socially – for careers with NASA and the like? And what strategies are necessary to engage them in STEM education?”

In this chapter, the author offers a historical overview of the STEM contributions offered by Black males, while explaining the competition of academic identity and Black male identity in successful school experiences. Four K-12 education barriers that derail African American males from their STEM trajectory are highlighted. As a conclusion, strategies to engage Black males in developing and nurturing an early interest in STEM are offered.

Details

Young, Gifted and Missing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-731-3

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Thomas Maak, Nicola M. Pless and Markéta Borecká

Two major trends have shaped the international business field over the past decade: globalization and the quest for responsible leadership. Yet, what are the qualities…

Abstract

Two major trends have shaped the international business field over the past decade: globalization and the quest for responsible leadership. Yet, what are the qualities that predispose business leaders to act responsibly in an increasingly complex, interlinked world, and thus to meet new social, environmental, and political responsibilities? How can organizations develop these qualities in their current and future leaders? In this chapter, we provide tentative answers to both questions by fleshing out some of the qualities global leaders need to succeed in a connected world and by comparing three innovative executive development programs that use international service learning assignments as a way to instill these qualities in their executives. These programs are PricewaterhouseCoopers’ Ulysses Program, Pfizer’s Global Health Fellows Program, and IBM’s Corporate Service Corps.

Details

Advances in Global Leadership
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-479-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1992

The Great Benchmarking Scam? Time was, in management circles, that the term “benchmarking” would induce none‐too‐disguised yawns in recognition of it “being something to…

Abstract

The Great Benchmarking Scam? Time was, in management circles, that the term “benchmarking” would induce none‐too‐disguised yawns in recognition of it “being something to do with computers or job evaluation”. Not today; those yawns have been replaced with the excited management‐blabber of a new fad. You can benchmark anything these days; I encountered recently a guide to benchmarking employee attitudes.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 10 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Book part
Publication date: 27 September 2021

Aditya Gupta and Alok Saboo

The sharp increase in interest in social networks among marketing scholars and practitioners has coincided with the rapid proliferation of social networks among broader…

Abstract

The sharp increase in interest in social networks among marketing scholars and practitioners has coincided with the rapid proliferation of social networks among broader populations. Considering the substantial body of research that has emerged, it is an opportune time to reflect on the state of social network research (SNR) in marketing. Therefore, this chapter reviews recent marketing research, organized according to substantive areas of interest, followed by a discussion of critical dimensions of SNR for researchers, including network actor characteristics, modes, boundaries, impacts, and mechanisms, as well as the relevant level of analysis. By documenting how SNR can inform marketing decisions and influence marketing outcomes, this study also establishes recommendations for research to advance the state of SNR in marketing. A 2 × 2 classification schema reveals four categories that might guide scholars' choices of research designs, theories, constructs, and measures for SNR.

Details

Marketing Accountability for Marketing and Non-marketing Outcomes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-563-9

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Book part
Publication date: 29 November 2019

Harald Pechlaner, Daniel Zacher, Elina Gavriljuk and Christian Eckert

The development of tourism can be considered from a tourist and a local perspective. The tourism space functions both as a tourism destination and a living space for local…

Abstract

The development of tourism can be considered from a tourist and a local perspective. The tourism space functions both as a tourism destination and a living space for local residents. Methods of atmospheric design can contribute to consider the guest’s view which can bring dynamism into the development of places and locations. This is seen as an interesting option for the Bavarian small town of Eichstaett in Germany, whose challenges and opportunities in tourism development are the focus of this contribution. Small towns have the potential to achieve tourism visibility and to increase the quality of life of the local population through a stronger engagement with the atmospheric design of their space.

Details

Atmospheric Turn in Culture and Tourism: Place, Design and Process Impacts on Customer Behaviour, Marketing and Branding
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-070-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1992

K.R. Bell and G.E.W. Scobie

Discusses an on‐site study of the integration of an“interactive video terminal” into active service in aScottish bank by means of observation and interview of both users…

Abstract

Discusses an on‐site study of the integration of an “interactive video terminal” into active service in a Scottish bank by means of observation and interview of both users and non‐users of the terminal, the purpose of which is to develop knowledge of the processes governing technology transfer and to identify problem areas. Presents summary recommendations arising from the study.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 June 2010

Yongxiu He, Weijun Tao, Aiying Dai, Lifang Yang, Rui Fang and Furong Li

The purpose of this paper is to use artificial intelligence to evaluate the risks of urban power network planning.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to use artificial intelligence to evaluate the risks of urban power network planning.

Design/methodology/approach

A fuzzy Bayesian least squares support vector machine (LS_SVM) model is established in this paper, which can learn the risk information of urban power network planning through artificial intelligence and acquire expert knowledge for its risk evaluation. With the advantage of possessing learning analog simulation precision and speed, the proposed model can be effectively applied in conducting a risk evaluation of an urban network planning system. First, fuzzy theory is applied to quantify qualitative risk factors of the planning to determine the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation value of the risk factors. Then, Bayesian evidence framework is utilized in LS_SVM model parameter optimization to automatically adjust the LS_SVM regularization parameters and nuclear parameters to obtain the best parameter values. Based on this, a risk comprehensive evaluation of urban network planning based on artificial intelligence is established.

Findings

The fuzzy Bayesian LS_SVM model established in this paper is an effective artificial intelligence method for risk comprehensive evaluation in urban network planning through empirical study.

Originality/value

The paper breaks new ground in using artificial intelligence to evaluate urban power network planning risks.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 39 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 August 2012

Mark Holloway

Brain injury rehabilitation is often complicated or confounded by difficulties with engaging the injured party with the services and input required. Lack of awareness of…

476

Abstract

Purpose

Brain injury rehabilitation is often complicated or confounded by difficulties with engaging the injured party with the services and input required. Lack of awareness of cognitive and executive impairments is often implicated in this difficulty. Any technique or approach that enhances engagement may then support rehabilitation. The aim of this paper is to examine the current evidence base for the use of motivational interviewing (MI) as a method for increasing engagement by supporting the development of insight.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is a literature review, taking as its basis Medley and Powell's conceptual review of MI and then examining the published evidence available.

Findings

Although attractive to practitioners in the field because the purpose of MI and the goals underpinning acquired brain injury (ABI) rehabilitation are co‐terminus, the theoretical and research findings to date that address the effective application of MI to ABI are inconclusive. The literature presently available suggests there is no conclusive evidence that MI is a more effective approach than any other, and that which is available makes little reference to the specific difficulties of an ABI population that may confound MI's application in this area.

Research limitations/implications

There is currently no high standard of evidence to support the use of MI with people with ABI.

Practical implications

There are still very few papers written, or research undertaken, into the effectiveness of MI with people with a brain injury. Most of the work undertaken thus far is concerned with supporting behavioural change in this population when problematic alcohol or drug use is co‐morbid. This paper identifies some of the practical difficulties with the approach whilst recognizing the inherent value in its aims.

Originality/value

The paper provides an opportunity for practitioners who wrestle with the difficulty of engagement on a daily basis to reflect upon how present practice could be altered to increase the likelihood of supporting engagement.

Details

Social Care and Neurodisability, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-0919

Keywords

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