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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2021

Kai Leung Yung, George To Sum Ho, Yuk Ming Tang and Wai Hung Ip

This project attempts to present a space component inventory classification system for space inventory replenishment and management. The authors propose to adopt a…

Abstract

Purpose

This project attempts to present a space component inventory classification system for space inventory replenishment and management. The authors propose to adopt a classification system that can incorporate all the different variables in a multi-criteria configuration. Fuzzy logic is applied as an effective way for formulating classification problems in space inventory replenishment.

Design/methodology/approach

A fuzzy-based approach with ABC classification is proposed to incorporate all the different variables in a multi-criteria configuration. Fuzzy logic is applied as an effective way for formulating classification problems in space inventory replenishment of the soil preparation system (SOPSYS) which is used in grinding and sifting Phobos rocks to sub-millimeter size in the Phobos-Grunt space mission. An information system was developed using the existing platform and was used to support the key aspects in performing inventory classification and purchasing optimization.

Findings

The proposed classification system was found to be able to classify the inventory and optimize the purchasing decision efficiency. Based on the information provided from the system, implementation plans for the SOPSYS project and related space projects can be proposed.

Research limitations/implications

The paper addresses one of the main difficulties in handling qualitative or quantitative classification criteria. The model can be implemented using mathematical calculation tools and integrated into the existing inventory management system. The proposed model has important implications in optimizing the purchasing decisions to shorten the research and development of other space instruments in space missions.

Originality/value

Inventory management in the manufacture of space instruments is one of the major problems due to the complexity of the manufacturing process and the large variety of items. The classification system can optimize purchasing decision-making in the inventory management process. It is also designed to be flexible and can be implemented for the manufacture of other space mission instruments.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 121 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

Donald C.K. Chan, K.L. Yung and Andrew W.H. Ip

The successfulness of total quality management is dependent on the initiative of employees to apply their problem solving techniques continuously. However, the performance…

Abstract

The successfulness of total quality management is dependent on the initiative of employees to apply their problem solving techniques continuously. However, the performance evaluation is quite subjective since it relies on the individual judgements of supervisors who have different perceptions of the process performance. This paper presents a performance measurement system to determine the priority in execution of quality improvement according to the performances of processes. Using a model containing a set of strategy‐related performance measures, misdirection of implementation of improvement projects due to subjective evaluation of process performance can be reduced. A fuzzy set of quality measures is introduced to calculate numerical quality rating for processes. The model is simulated and experimented on with a conventional improvement implementation practice. It is expected that the proposed model is superior in the major competitive capabilities including quality, cost flexibility, delivery reliability and speed.

Details

Integrated Manufacturing Systems, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6061

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2007

K.L. Yung and S.M. Ko

This paper sets out to present the weight optimization of sampling drill‐bits which is designed for European Space Agency – Beagle 2 Mars Express mission.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper sets out to present the weight optimization of sampling drill‐bits which is designed for European Space Agency – Beagle 2 Mars Express mission.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, two techniques, finite element analysis and numerical optimization, are employed to find out the optimal solution within the various constraints.

Findings

The result shows that the total weight of sampling drill‐bits was reduced over 76.7 percent.

Originality/value

The proposed methodology can also be applied in different engineering design applications and provides a total integrated solution as a generic template for design engineers.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2000

W.H. Ip, K.C. Lee, K.L. Yung and R. Yam

In the majority of public utilities, achieving optimum utilisation of existing capital assets for meeting future predicted demand is a major function at all levels of…

Abstract

In the majority of public utilities, achieving optimum utilisation of existing capital assets for meeting future predicted demand is a major function at all levels of management. In this paper, a set of maintenance strategies and a computerised Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system for achieving an integrated maintenance management is described. The objective of the integrated system is to enable maintenance projects to be better controlled and resources to be properly utilised. A case study is used to illustrate the proposed maintenance strategies which include the identification of real time and historical data required to measure, visualise and quantify the progress of maintenance activities. Existing and proposed systems and procedures are analysed and discussed with major recommendations included for the design and implementation of this integrated system.

Details

Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2511

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2000

Joseph W.K. Chan, K.L. Yung and N.D. Burns

Examines the logistics environment and the manufacturing logistics strategy in Hong Kong, based on six case studies. The manufacturing structure of Hong Kong industry is…

Abstract

Examines the logistics environment and the manufacturing logistics strategy in Hong Kong, based on six case studies. The manufacturing structure of Hong Kong industry is identified. The following logistics strategies adopted by Hong Kong companies are discussed: market intelligence, sourcing, front‐end activities, manufacturing distribution, back‐end activities, vertical integration, ethnic network, free market, and information technology. The logistics related environmental factors that are taken into consideration include geographical location, telecommunication infrastructure, finance infrastructure, air transportation infrastructure, sea transportation infrastructure, road transportation infrastructure, professional services, culture, and information technology. A framework of environment‐strategy (E‐S) fit is developed in the perspectives of Hong Kong manufacturing logistics. The factors contributing to the manufacturing success in Hong Kong are also discussed.

Details

Logistics Information Management, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6053

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1999

Chi Keung Donald Chan, K.L. Yung and W.H. Ip

A way of initiating and sustaining the implementation of total quality management (TQM) by exploiting the widely adopted manufacturing resource planning (MRP II) is…

Abstract

A way of initiating and sustaining the implementation of total quality management (TQM) by exploiting the widely adopted manufacturing resource planning (MRP II) is presented. A detailed analysis of MRP II software has found that they have a number of inherent features that can be further extended to organizational performance including operations efficiency, responsiveness, company‐wide problem‐solving capability and product quality. This paper contributes in the development of a model for the MRP II with the incorporation of mechanisms to initiate a culture change in the organization towards TQM. In the adaptation of MRP II to guide the implementation of TQM, a structural analysis technique was proposed to help develop a model and methodology for the integration. In the structural analysis, an IDEF model of a “reference” company structure was created to illustrate and describe the integration. The reference company, which is a lamp manufacturer, is used to illustrate the systematic implementation of the TQM philosophy through adaptation of the MRP II software. The study demonstrates that MRP II can be adapted to provide the drive for effective implementation of TQM for productivity and profits.

Details

Integrated Manufacturing Systems, vol. 10 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6061

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Article
Publication date: 31 July 2014

Francesco Capalbo, Alex Frino, Vito Mollica and Riccardo Palumbo

Opposition to transnational calls for the adoption of accrual-based accounting in the public sector may stem from arguments that it is associated with poor earnings…

Abstract

Purpose

Opposition to transnational calls for the adoption of accrual-based accounting in the public sector may stem from arguments that it is associated with poor earnings quality. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether state owned enterprises (SOEs) operating under accrual-based accounting manage their earnings, whether it is more prevalent vis-à-vis privately owned enterprises (POEs) and the conditions under which it is more likely to occur.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper measures earnings management for a large sample of unlisted Italian SOEs and POEs using a framework developed by Stubben (2010). The authors use regression analysis to estimate the variables which predict abnormal accruals including firm size, leverage and profitability.

Findings

The authors find no evidence that the level of state ownership (SO) is positively correlated with accrual-based earnings management. The authors also provide evidence that earnings management by SOEs decreases with firm size and increases with profitability.

Research limitations/implications

While the study is the first to examine earnings management in a public sector accrual accounting environment for a sample of European firms, namely Italian firms, the authors call for more research into this issue examining public entities in other European Union (EU) member states or public entities other than SOEs.

Practical implications

The EU recently introduced a new transnational accounting directive in which it prescribes the preparation of financial statements based on accrual accounting for all European public sector entities, arguing that it reduces the window dressing that is allowed by cash accounting. Since Italian SOEs already prepare their accounts on an accruals-basis, by analysing their accounting behaviour the authors are able to determine the variables which predict when earning management is more likely to occur in a public sector accrual accounting environment, and therefore the authors provide guidance which may be useful in shaping the transition process from cash accounting to accrual accounting by identifying the types of entities whose accounts should be subject to greater regulatory scrutiny. A better understanding of the relation between SO and earnings management will provide insight into public sector corporate governance and aid in the acceptance of transnational regulation that would otherwise significantly alter current accounting practices and possibly be opposed at a national level.

Originality/value

Earnings management in a public sector accrual accounting environment had been analysed only for Chinese listed companies. The authors extend previous analysis to a sample of European (Italian) SOEs which are unlisted. The authors also extend previous work by determining the characteristics of firms which manage their earnings.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2019

Qian Hao, Xiangyan Shi, Danlu Bu and Liaoliao Li

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impacts of the 2008 Chinese stimulus program on earnings management.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impacts of the 2008 Chinese stimulus program on earnings management.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sample period from 2004 to 2011 (per-stimulus period: 2004-2007 and post-stimulus period: 2008-2011), the authors compare the change in earnings management between the firms that received the stimulus funds and those that did not receive the stimulus funds.

Findings

The authors find that from the pre- to post-stimulus period, the recipient firms experienced a greater increase in downward accrual management and a greater decrease in real management than the non-recipient firms did. This result is primarily driven by the non-state-owned enterprises and firms using non-Big-Four auditors.

Originality/value

The results suggest that the earnings management level is ultimately determined by the underlying economic and political factors influencing managers’ and auditors’ incentives (Cohen, 2008; Ball et al., 2003). Meanwhile, some mechanisms, such as high-quality audit (Eshleman and Guo, 2014) and state ownership (Wang and Yung, 2011) can also play a role in determining the level of earnings management.

Details

International Journal of Accounting & Information Management, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1834-7649

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1998

E.W.T. Nga and T.C.E. Cheng

This paper presents the findings based on a survey conducted to examine the status and extent of the use of computer‐based technology (CBT) to support “quality”, including…

Abstract

This paper presents the findings based on a survey conducted to examine the status and extent of the use of computer‐based technology (CBT) to support “quality”, including such aspects as quality control, quality assurance and quality management, in Hong Kong. Five main categories of CBTs, namely decision support systems (DSSs), group support systems (GSSs), executive information systems (EISs), expert systems (ESs) and artificial neural networks (ANNs), in support of quality are surveyed. The survey findings indicate that CBT usage to support quality in Hong Kong is low, particularly ESs and ANNs. This is partly due to a lack of awareness regarding the potential of CBTs in supporting quality among their potential users, and partly because of a lack of availability of suitable software to support their use. This paper represents a first attempt to examine the real‐life use of CBTs in support of quality. Based on the research findings, we have identified several opportunities for further research and suggested a number of research directions for CBTs to support “quality”in practice.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 15 no. 8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Article
Publication date: 15 July 2021

Radwan Alkebsee, Adeeb A. Alhebry and Gaoliang Tian

Scholars have investigated the association between executives' incentives and earnings management. Most of the extant literature focuses on equity executives' incentives…

Abstract

Purpose

Scholars have investigated the association between executives' incentives and earnings management. Most of the extant literature focuses on equity executives' incentives, while most of the earnings management literature focuses on accrual earnings management (AEM), not real earnings management (REM). This paper investigates the association between chief executive officers’ (CEOs) and chief financial officer (CFOs) cash compensation and REM and explores who has more influence on REM, the CEO or the CFO.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use the data of all listed companies on the Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges for the period from 2009 to 2017 and ordinary least squares regression as a baseline model and the Chow test to capture whether the CEO's or the CFO's cash compensation has more influence on REM. To address potential endogeneity issues, the authors use a firm-fixed effect technique and two-stage least squares regression.

Findings

The authors find that CEOs' and CFOs' cash compensation is significantly associated with REM, suggesting that paying non-equity compensation to the CEO and CFO is negatively associated with REM. The authors also find that the CFO's cash compensation has a more significant influence on REM than the CEO's cash compensation, suggesting that the CFO's accounting and financial knowledge strengthens his or her power on the quality of financial reporting.

Practical implications

The study contributes to the literature of agency and contract theories by using cash-based compensation to provide strong evidence that CEO's and CFO's compensation is associated with REM. It also contributes to the earnings management literature by examining the effect of CEOs' and CFOs' cash compensation on earnings management using proxies for REM-related activities. The study also contributes to the institutional theory by providing empirical evidence on the governance role of executives' cash compensation in deterring REM. Finally, it is the first to examine the relationship between CEO's and CFO's cash compensation and REM, and the first to explore who is more influential regarding REM in emerging markets, the CEO or the CFO.

Originality/value

As a response to the call for investigations of the role of non-equity-based compensation in earnings management and the call to consider non-developed institutional contexts in governance research, this study extends prior studies by providing novel evidence on the relationship between CEOs' and CFOs' non-equity compensation and REM in China's emerging market. The study documents that the CFO has a greater influence on REM than the CEO does.

Details

Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-1168

Keywords

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