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This chapter explains the impact containerisation has on the various partners of the global supply chain and the challenges companies encounter and the solutions they use…
This chapter explains the impact containerisation has on the various partners of the global supply chain and the challenges companies encounter and the solutions they use in dealing with empty container repositioning.
The phenomenon of imbalanced container flows and its impact on shipping lines, shippers, container haulage companies, port development and the economy are presented. Special attention is given to explain the many solutions companies use to reduce the impact of empty container repositioning, hence tracing out the past research that led to these solutions and pointing to potentially new research directions in the future.
Because of the widespread use of containerisation and the imbalanced container flows that results from globalisation, empty container repositioning will be an ongoing issue for the maritime logistics industry. Many solutions are being used, but there is room for improvement and more research is needed.
Empty container repositioning is an important issue but has not been deemed as such in the literature. This chapter explains the reasons it is important and that its impact is not limited to shipping lines only but affects the whole supply chain.
Many manufacturers are considering the just‐in‐time (JIT) philosophy in order to become more competitive in global markets. An important element of the JIT strategy is the…
Many manufacturers are considering the just‐in‐time (JIT) philosophy in order to become more competitive in global markets. An important element of the JIT strategy is the purchasing function. The procurement of parts and materials plays a key role in the successful implementation of a JIT strategy because it has a direct impact on increased productivity, reduced costs and improved quality. Experts agree that supplier selection is one of the most important activities of purchasing. Three popular methods for supplier performance evaluation appear in the literature: categorical, weighted point and cost ratio. However, these techniques have disadvantages associated with them and an alternative approach is suggested which applies dimensional analysis to selecting prospective suppliers. An international purchasing office (IPO), located in Hong Kong, has been applying the dimensional analysis approach to assessing suppliers. Using the IPO as a case study, the benefits of this approach over the traditional assessment methods are discussed, both as a means of measuring not only supplier performance, but also the contribution to the purchasing relationship from the buyer organisation.
In recent decades there has been much interest and activity in the application of mathematical ideas for controlling inventory. However most of this has been related to…
In recent decades there has been much interest and activity in the application of mathematical ideas for controlling inventory. However most of this has been related to the control of stock products whose demand is smooth and continuous. When demand is lumpy these methods are inefficient in their attempts to minimise thé operating cost. A simple regression model is developed for computing optimal (s, S) policies for items with lumpy demand patterns. Continuous review of inventory level is assumed and the lead time demand is approximated by the stuttering Poisson distribution. A grid of 864 known optimal policies has been used to provide the data for the calibration of the regression models. Numerical models are used to illustrate this approach. Extensive computational results show that this model provides excellent performance in estimating the optimal values of the control parameters s and S for wide ranges of demand and cost parameters.
Information sharing and coordination between buyer and vendor have been considered as useful strategies to improve supply chain performance. The debate is about what…
Information sharing and coordination between buyer and vendor have been considered as useful strategies to improve supply chain performance. The debate is about what information to share and how to share most cost‐effectively to maximize the mutual benefits of the supply chain as a whole and the individual business players. Proposes a systematic framework for investigating the impacts of sharing production information on the supply chain dynamic performance. This framework supports supply chain researches to study impacts of information sharing under various scenarios. Examines, under the framework, an inventory allocation problem in an arborescent distribution supply chain with two distribution channels competing for the same source of supply. Finds that the levels of benefits by sharing information vary with different players involved in the supply chain. Suggests some guidelines to balance the benefits in a supply chain in order to motivate information sharing.
The management of engineering changes (ECs) entails serious resource implications in all manufacturing companies, because nearly all the functions of the organisations…
The management of engineering changes (ECs) entails serious resource implications in all manufacturing companies, because nearly all the functions of the organisations will be involved. Indeed, these functions may be the sources and also the victims of ECs. Manufacturing companies have to cater for these ECs by adjusting their activities constantly. The robustness of manufacturing can be crippled by ineffective and inefficient management of ECs, irrespective of the advances in manufacturing technologies. This paper studies the current industrial practices in managing ECs in the UK manufacturing industries. The study draws reference from a comprehensive investigation carried out in 1996 within 100 UK manufacturing companies. Numerous aspects have been examined, including the systems, organisations, activities, influential factors, strategies, techniques, and computer aids. One major concern is the balance between the effectiveness and efficiency of the engineering change management (ECM) system. The findings reveal that guidelines for good ECM practices are required for the majority of the companies involved in the study. The study has also shown clearly that ECM has not attracted sufficient attention in research despite its industrial relevance.
An effective system development paradigm and its associated design tools can streamline the production of flexible manufacturing systems. In view of the technological…
An effective system development paradigm and its associated design tools can streamline the production of flexible manufacturing systems. In view of the technological advances in developing complex manufacturing systems, a framework and its associated graphical development environment are presented in this paper. This framework aims at providing a unified platform to develop complex manufacturing systems with enhanced formality. Features include procedures for requirement analysis, simulation of system behavior, and formal verification of abstract implementation. The proposed framework helps to shorten lifecycle for system designs and helps engineers to produce manufacturing systems that conform better with original specifications with better quality. A flexible conveyor‐based production system is chosen as a case example to illustrate the capabilities of the proposed framework.
The flexibility of an automated manufacturing system (AMS) is largely determined by the architecture of its supervisory software. The AMS supervisory software should be…
The flexibility of an automated manufacturing system (AMS) is largely determined by the architecture of its supervisory software. The AMS supervisory software should be compatible enough to allow re‐configuration, maintenance, and upgrading to be done at a reasonable cost, so as to prolong the life span of the AMS, and to maintain its value and success. In this connection, the application of software engineering methodologies is to introduce better management of AMS software development, with a view to providing some structure and formality to express, analyse, and produce them. This paper presents an object‐oriented methodology to address the task of AMS supervisory software development. The effectiveness of the methodology is examined in an extensive case study of the development of the supervisory software for a flexible manufacturing cell (FMC) that contains a robot and an AGV.
Computer aided process planning (CAPP) is generally acknowledged as a significant activity to achieve computer‐integrated manufacturing (CIM). In coping with the dynamic…
Computer aided process planning (CAPP) is generally acknowledged as a significant activity to achieve computer‐integrated manufacturing (CIM). In coping with the dynamic changes in the modern manufacturing environment, the awareness of developing intelligent CAPP systems has to be raised, in an attempt to generate more successful implementations of intelligent manufacturing systems. In this paper, the architecture of a hybrid intelligent inference model for implementing the intelligent CAPP system is developed. The detailed structure for such a model is also constructed. The establishment of the hybrid intelligent inference model will enable the CAPP system to adapt automatically to the dynamic manufacturing environment, with a view to the ultimate realization of full implementation of intelligent manufacturing systems in enterprises.
The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel method using support vector machine (SVM) classifiers for objective seam pucker evaluation. Features are extracted using…
The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel method using support vector machine (SVM) classifiers for objective seam pucker evaluation. Features are extracted using wavelet analysis and gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), and the samples are evaluated using SVM classifiers. The study aims to solve the problem of inappropriate parameters and large required samples in objective seam pucker evaluation.
Initially, seam pucker image was captured, and Edge detection and Hough transform were utilized to normalize the seam position and orientation. After cropping the image, the intensity was adjusted to the same identical level through histogram specification. Then, the standard deviations of the horizontal image and diagonal image, reconstructed using wavelet decomposition and reconstruction, were calculated based on parameter optimization. Meanwhile, GLCM was extracted from the restructured horizontal detail image, then the contrast and correlation of GLCM were calculated. Finally, these four features were imported to SVM classifiers based on genetic algorithm for evaluation.
The four extracted features reflected linear relationships among five grades. The experimental results showed that the classification accuracy was 96 percent, which catches up to the performance of human vision, and resolves ambiguity and subjective of the manual evaluation.
There are large required samples in current research. This paper provides a novel method using finite samples, and the parameters of the methods were discussed for parameter optimization. The evaluation results can provide references for analyzing the reason of wrinkles during garment manufacturing.
This article reports on a questionnaire survey with the aim to determine the extent of familiarity with and use of design for manufacture (DFM) in the UK furniture…
This article reports on a questionnaire survey with the aim to determine the extent of familiarity with and use of design for manufacture (DFM) in the UK furniture manufacturing industry. It was revealed that only a small proportion had experimented or applied one or more DFM techniques. The majority of them did not understand what exactly DFM was and wished to know more about it, while a noticeable level of benefits had been achieved, perceived, or expected. Embedding DFM activities in day‐to‐day operations was perceived by industrialists as the most effective way of implementing DFM while training for a formal team was necessary for its introduction. A high level of management support was evident, so were worries about the high risk and cost. However, the special needs of the furniture industry require further investigation.