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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1997

Clem Tisdell and Kartik Roy

Reports on a mission to north‐east India undertaken in September 1996 with a view to developing a joint research programme on sustainability of land use in that area…

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Abstract

Reports on a mission to north‐east India undertaken in September 1996 with a view to developing a joint research programme on sustainability of land use in that area. Describes the mission, the travel involved and the nature of the agreement which was reached with members of the North‐East Hill University, Mizoram Campus and with participants of Arunachal University. Identifies priority areas for future research as sustainable agriculture and use of forestry resources with the mission focus of attention being on Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh. States that the majority of the population in north‐eastern Indian states consists of tribal people, many of whom still engage in shifting agriculture and are still very dependent on forest resources for their livelihood. Explains that, owing to rising populations and the desire for higher incomes, traditional practices in agriculture and forest use in this part of India are no longer sustainable, noting that the incomes of local people and their way of life are therefore threatened and there is urgent need for research to find new alternatives.

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International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 24 no. 1/2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2002

Fiorenzo Franceschini and Sergio Rossetto

The paper is concerned with the problem of the “prioritization” of technical design characteristics of a product. An interactive algorithm has been developed with the aim…

Abstract

The paper is concerned with the problem of the “prioritization” of technical design characteristics of a product. An interactive algorithm has been developed with the aim to better support the engineering design process by means of quality function deployment (QFD). The algorithm tries to soften customer approach to QFD in those situations in which customers are not able to give a “significant” evaluation of the relative importance of their requirements. The method allows determining a ranking order of design characteristics without the artificial conversion of symbols contained in the relationship matrix, and without the use of explicit information concerning the relative degree of importance of customer requirements. A simple numerical application is also provided.

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Integrated Manufacturing Systems, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6061

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1998

K.C. Roy

Higher economic growth is necessary to reduce the level of poverty and improve the living standard of population. But higher economic growth requires greater use of…

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1409

Abstract

Higher economic growth is necessary to reduce the level of poverty and improve the living standard of population. But higher economic growth requires greater use of natural resources and environment which in turn leads to their degradation and eventual decay. Increased population pressure on natural resources also contributes to their degradation. Hence, higher growth may not necessarily lead to sustainable development unless it is accompanied by environmental protection. An efficient demand management policy by emphasizing conservation and prudent use of environment can also increase the supply of reserves. One alternative is to attempt to conserve resources via community management of such resources. But community management cannot succeed in absence of appropriate property rights of the community and of women and appropriate institutions to enforce such rights. These in turn require the presence of an activist developmental state which can engage in a participatory system of environmental conservation and management.

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International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1996

Julio O. De Castro, G. Dale Meyer, Kelly C. Strong and Nikolaus Uhlenbruck

The privatization of State Owned Enterprises (SOE) has significant implications for SOE stakeholders. However, the effects on stakeholders will vary depending on…

Abstract

The privatization of State Owned Enterprises (SOE) has significant implications for SOE stakeholders. However, the effects on stakeholders will vary depending on characteristics of the privatization process and the structure of the SOE. This paper identifies privatization process characteristics of wealth creation and wealth distribution, and describes SOE structures on a continuum between government corporation and government agency. The privatization effectiveness for stakeholders is discussed and examples provided for each classification of privatization.

Details

The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1055-3185

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Article
Publication date: 15 December 2021

Fuminobu Ozaki, Ying Liu and Kai Ye

The purpose of this study is to clarify both tensile and shear strength for self-drilling screws, which are manufactured from high-strength, martensitic-stainless and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to clarify both tensile and shear strength for self-drilling screws, which are manufactured from high-strength, martensitic-stainless and austenitic stainless-steel bars, and the load-bearing capacity of single overlapped screwed connections using steel sheets and self-drilling screws at elevated temperatures.

Design/methodology/approach

Tensile/shear loading tests for the self-drilling screw were conducted to obtain basic information on the tensile and shear strengths at elevated temperatures and examine the relationships between both. Shear loading tests for the screwed connections at elevated temperatures were conducted to examine the shear strength and transition of failure modes depending on the test temperature.

Findings

The tensile and shear strengths as well as the reduction factors at the elevated temperature for each steel grade of the self-drilling screw were quantified. Furthermore, either screw shear or sheet bearing failure mode depending on the test temperature was observed for the screwed connection.

Originality/value

The transition of the failure modes for the screwed connection could be explained using the calculation formulae for the shear strengths at elevated temperatures, which were proposed in this study.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1999

K.C. Roy and C.A. Tisdell

Economic development requires the use of natural resources. Increasing population makes increasing demand on such resources thereby leading to the degradation of the…

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1853

Abstract

Economic development requires the use of natural resources. Increasing population makes increasing demand on such resources thereby leading to the degradation of the environment. Excessive use of resources can lead to a situation where declining supply can no longer satisfy the demand. Hence, without conservation and prudent management of resources the environment cannot be preserved. This paper examines the case of water supply, which is the fundamental requirement for the sustenance of all life forms on earth. The human population is expected to double to at least 8 billion in the next 30 years and the worldwide demand for water is estimated to increase by a staggering 650 percent. However, the total supply of fresh water in the world is limited as 99 percent of the earth’s water is either saline or frozen. Of the remaining 1 percent most is ground water and soil moisture. The net availability of fresh water for human consumption is one‐hundredth of 1 percent. And not even all of that can be used. Hence, how can the continued availability of fresh water resources to satisfy the growing need of the rising population be satisfied? Conservation of fresh water can be achieved to some extent by reducing the demand by imposing a price/or raising the prevailing price on the use of water. However, while conservation can stretch the supply by reducing demand, for ensuring the long‐run adequacy of supply, it is necessary to apply a prudent environmental management policy which will prevent the destruction of forests and natural resources and apply a policy of active regeneration of forests. While the supplies of water make the forests survive and grow, preservation of forests allows water resources to survive. Forests cannot be preserved unless the destruction of hundreds and thousands of wetlands to make way for human settlement and industrial development is prevented and property rights of landless people are recognised. Thus for a prudent and efficient management of water resources to be effective, the state must adopt the ecologically sustainable approach to development. This paper examines these issues.

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International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 26 no. 1/2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2011

Antonio Fabio Di Rienzo, Pietro Asinari, Romano Borchiellini and Sunhash C. Mishra

The purpose of this paper is to present and validate some improvements to the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for solving radiative heat transfer in a participating medium…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present and validate some improvements to the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for solving radiative heat transfer in a participating medium. Validation of the model is performed by investigating the effects of spatial and angular discretizations and extinction coefficient on the solution. The error analysis and the order of convergence of the scheme are also reported.

Design/methodology/approach

LB scheme is derived from the radiative transfer equation, where isotropic scattering and radiative equilibrium condition are assumed. Azimuthal angle is discretized according to the lattice velocities on the computational plane, while, concerning the polar angle, an additional component of the discrete velocity normal to the plane is introduced. Radiative LB scheme is used to solve a 2‐D square enclosure benchmark problem. In order to validate the model, results of LB scheme are compared with a reference solution obtained through a Richardson extrapolation of the results of a standard finite volume method.

Findings

The proposed improvements drastically increase the accuracy of the previous method. Radiative LB scheme is found to be (at most) first order accurate. Numerical results show that solution gets more accurate when spatial and azimuthal angle discretizations are improved, but a saturation threshold exists. With regard to polar angle, minimum error occurs when a particular subdivision is considered.

Originality/value

The paper provides simple but effective improvements to the recently proposed lattice Boltzmann method for solving radiative heat transfer in a participating medium.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 21 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1998

K.C. Roy and C.A. Tisdell

The possibilities for good governance depends on institutional structures and the economic resources available for ensuring governance. In some cases centralised…

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5619

Abstract

The possibilities for good governance depends on institutional structures and the economic resources available for ensuring governance. In some cases centralised governance structures are inefficient. In other cases, decentralised structures turn out to be inadequate. In India decentralisation of power to village level has not improved the efficiency of rural development. Decentralisation of power, it is said, by facilitating the empowerment of people in local communities can contribute to more sustainable development. On the other hand, in India, the delegation of power to the states in some cases has resulted in the destruction of the environment. Thus centralised and decentralised governance structure have both merits and demerits. Preservation of the environment which is essential for sustainable development cannot be achieved unless the pressure on forest and natural resources is reduced. This cannot happen in the absence of appropriate property rights of local communities and of rural women. In West Bengal as well as in the central Himalayan region in India it has been found that the disappearance of community control and restrictions on the user rights of villagers reduced the incentive and ability of villagers to use forest sustainability. On the other hand, in Russia, pristine forests are being degraded because of lack of resources of the weak central government. Good governance also depends on appropriate institutions. Corruption, bureaucratic inefficiency, inefficient and corrupt law enforcement agencies undermine the capacity of institutions to facilitate good governance for sustainable development. Corruption and rent seeking activities can grow even in an economy which has tried to apply outward oriented economic policies if an appropriate institutional environment does not exist. A state which assumes predatory or semi‐predatory status can systematically incapacitate all institutions for good governance and effective implementation of policies. Thus formulation of policies cannot ensure effective implementation in the absence of good governance which in turn cannot be achieved in the absence of appropriate institutions. Hence, sustainable development requires good policies and effective provision of institutions conducive to good governance.

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International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 25 no. 6/7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2002

K.C. Roy and C.A. Tisdell

This paper examines the importance of property rights in women’s empowerment in rural India. Arguments justifying the need for granting property rights to women are…

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2531

Abstract

This paper examines the importance of property rights in women’s empowerment in rural India. Arguments justifying the need for granting property rights to women are presented and the distinction is made between legal (formal) and customary (informal) rights. The ineffectiveness of legal right in absence of customary rights has been discussed. Customary rights also become ineffective due to other institutional impediments. These impediments have been discussed. The results of extensive field work in rural West Bengal and Orissa have been presented to illustrate the pattern of development process that poor rural women want and in which the property right is only one component, not the only component.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 24 April 2020

Osama Bedair

In this work, a numerical algorithm is presented for stability analysis of cold-formed steel (CFS) channel sections.

Abstract

Purpose

In this work, a numerical algorithm is presented for stability analysis of cold-formed steel (CFS) channel sections.

Design/methodology/approach

A nonlinear optimization problem is formulated using energy-based technique of idealized channel section subject shear, compression and biaxial bending. The total potential energy is minimized with respect to skew angle and half wavelength of the buckling mode. The optimization algorithm is updated sequentially using quadratic approximation until minimum buckling coefficient is attained. The developed algorithm is validated using other numerical techniques.

Findings

The described algorithm is computationally effective and can be utilized in the industry for analysis of CFS channels under any load combination.

Practical implications

The paper offers a new tool for engineers in practice to analyze channels subject to combined loadings.

Originality/value

Very limited literature dealt with the stability of channels under combined loading. A new numerical algorithm is provided to practitioners to utilize in the industry for analysis of channel sections under combined loading. Unlike finite element or finite strip methods, the channel is not discretized into subelements. Mathematical programming technique is used to find the buckling load. Parametric studies are then carried out to highlight influences of geometric interaction of the channel components and to provide useful guidance to the design of CFS channels.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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