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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1985

T. Hanabusa, K. Yamamoto, M. Yamashita and K. Takagi

High density packaging mounted VLSI demand highly dense and highly accurate multilayer printed wiring boards. The authors have studied Ultra Thin Copper (UTC) technology of…

Abstract

High density packaging mounted VLSI demand highly dense and highly accurate multilayer printed wiring boards. The authors have studied Ultra Thin Copper (UTC) technology of printed wiring boards for application to the packages of high speed and high performance computers for more than 10 years. This paper describes the requirement for fine line and highly dense multilayer printed wiring boards and the study of the development of a suitable process using the UTC. The discussions include the behaviour of pattern etching and effects of plating thickness, the improvement of plating thickness uniformity, the selection of carrier types, the measurement of peel strength between copper foil and substrate, and so on. The UTC application reduces the defects caused by surface contamination of epoxy resin. Degradation of surface resistance is also discussed, which may be caused by surface creeping of alkaline ions arising from residues of plating solution within the plated‐through hole wall. These investigations could establish UTC technology for fine line printed wiring boards.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 6 April 2012

Przemyslaw Fima, Tomasz Gancarz, Janusz Pstrus, Krystyna Bukat and Janusz Sitek

The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of copper concentration in near‐eutectic liquid SAC solders on their thermophysical properties: viscosity, surface tension…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of copper concentration in near‐eutectic liquid SAC solders on their thermophysical properties: viscosity, surface tension, density; as well as wetting behavior on copper substrates at 523 K.

Design/methodology/approach

Viscosity, surface tension, and density were studied over a broad range of temperatures with the recently developed Roach‐Henein method. The obtained results were compared with the data from modified capillary, maximum bubble pressure, wetting balance and dilatometric measurements. Wetting angles measured with wetting balance method were compared with the results of sessile drop measurements.

Findings

The results obtained indicate that increasing concentration of copper in the alloy results in higher density, surface tension and viscosity, but differences resulting from copper concentration on wettability are relatively small. At 523 K, the density is: 7.097, 7.186, 7.232 g cm−3, the surface tension is: 538.1, 553.5, 556.7 m Nm−1, the viscosity is: 2.173, 2.227, 2.467 mPas, respectively, for alloys containing 0.41, 1.01 and 1.61 wt% of Cu. Wetting angles on copper substrates are similar within a margin of error for all compositions. The results of present study are compared with the available literature data and a relatively good agreement is observed.

Originality/value

This paper provides the data of thermophysical properties of widely‐used SAC solders including viscosity, of which there is little data in the literature. It is confirmed that the increased copper concentration increases viscosity, yet this effect is small and does not correlate with the wetting behavior.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 March 2022

João Alexandre Paschoalin Filho, Antonio Jose Guerner Dias, João Henrique Storopoli, Andrea Ghermandi and Hendrio Chaves de Carvalho

This research aims at studying the influence of a classroom’s inner environmental conditions on undergraduate students’ performance using an experimental methodology.

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Abstract

Purpose

This research aims at studying the influence of a classroom’s inner environmental conditions on undergraduate students’ performance using an experimental methodology.

Design/methodology/approach

The Uchida-Kraepelin test (U-K test) was applied to measure the performance of a group of 47 students in a selected classroom that was arranged according to the following experimental conditions: air-conditioning on, and doors and windows closed (D1); doors and windows open, and air-conditioning off (D2); air-conditioning off, and doors and windows closed (D3). After completing the tests, questionnaires were distributed to evaluate the students’ assessment of each set of environmental conditions.

Findings

On-site measurements of humidity and carbon dioxide levels stress the importance of ensuring good natural ventilation through open doors and windows, independently of whether the air-conditioning system is operated or not. Also, the authors find that the students’ self-assessment regarding the inner environmental conditions for each studied set was entirely accurate, with set D3 being assessed as the worst. The U-K test scores for each environmental set did not show statistically significant differences, which means that, in the studied conditions, the student’s performance in the tests was not affected by the inner environmental conditions.

Practical implications

There is a direct relationship between the building’s indoor conditions and an occupant’s health. Factors such as poor maintenance, bad indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and building age will worsen the building’s condition and negatively impact the occupant’s health. Educational buildings with poor IEQ can reduce the concentration and performance of occupants.

Social implications

School is an important place to help students grow in their various capabilities. They spend approximately 30% of their daily lives in schools for their educational activities. Since most of their activities are performed indoors, indoor environmental attributes, such as light, heat, air and sound, should be maintained as required. In general, schools are not thermally comfortable. The extreme thermal environment of classrooms affects students’ concentration. Thermal discomfort may also cause irritation. In addition to reduced concentration, such an environment could also cause tiredness, sluggishness and health problem.

Originality/value

Despite the importance of the issue, scientific investigations of the correlations between students’ performance and the quality of scholar buildings’ inner environmental conditions are still relatively recent. In this context, this research further explores the effect of a classroom’s different environmental inner conditions on the performance of undergraduate students at a university in São Paulo/Brazil.

Details

Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-6862

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 November 2021

Mohamed Attia and Jyoti K. Sinha

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the reliability of the quantitative risk model used for planning inspection and maintenance activities. The objective is to critically…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the reliability of the quantitative risk model used for planning inspection and maintenance activities. The objective is to critically discuss the factors that contribute to the probability and consequence of failure calculations.

Design/methodology/approach

The case study conducted using one of the most widely deployed risk models in the oil and gas industry where a full assessment was performed on an offshore gas producing platform.

Findings

The generic failure frequencies used as the basis for calculating the probability of failure are set at a value representative of the refining and petrochemical industry's failure data. This failure database does not cover offshore. The critical discussion indicated the lack of basis of the coefficient of variances, prior probabilities and conditional probabilities. Moreover, the risk model does not address the distribution of thickness measurements, corrosion rates and inspection effectiveness, whereas only overall deterministic values are used; this requires judgment to determine these values. Probabilities of ignition, probabilities of delayed ignition and other probabilities in Level 1 event tree are found selected based on expert judgment for each of the reference fluids and release types (i.e. continuous or instantaneous). These probabilities are constant and independent of the release rate or mass and lack of constructed model. Defining the release type is critical in the consequence of the failure methodology, whereas the calculated consequences differ greatly depending on the type of release, i.e. continuous or instantaneous. The assessment results show that both criteria of defining the type of release, i.e. continuous or instantaneous, do not affect the calculations of flammable consequences when the auto-ignition likely is zero at the storage temperature. While, the difference in the resulted toxic consequence was more than 31 times between the two criteria of defining the type of release.

Research limitations/implications

There is a need to revamp this quantitative risk model to minimize the subjectivity in the risk calculation and to address the unique design features of offshore platforms.

Originality/value

This case study critically discuss the risk model being widely applied in the O&G industry and demonstrates to the end-users the subjectivity in the risk results. Hence, be vigilant when establishing the risk tolerance/target for the purpose of inspection and maintenance planning.

Details

Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2511

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Bingsheng Xu, Yan Wu, Lina Zhang, Junwei Chen and Zhangfu Yuan

This research aims to provide a theoretical method and data supports for a future study on interfacial reaction mechanism and spreading mechanism between molten solder and…

207

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to provide a theoretical method and data supports for a future study on interfacial reaction mechanism and spreading mechanism between molten solder and V-shaped substrate, which also gives guidance for those complicated welding operation objects in brazing technique.

Design/methodology/approach

Wetting experiments were performed to measure the contact angles at different temperatures of molten Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu wetting on the quartz substrate with an included angle of 90°. According to the experimental results, the theoretical spreading morphology of molten solder on V-shaped substrate at corresponding temperature was simulated by Surface Evolver.

Findings

The theoretical morphology profiles of the molten solder sitting on the V-shaped substrate are simulated using Surface Evolver when the molten solder reaches spreading equilibrium. The spreading mechanisms as well as the impact of surface tension and gravity on interfacial energy of the molten solder wetting on the V-shaped groove substrate are also discussed where theoretical results agree well with experiment results. The contact area between the gas and liquid phases shows a tendency of first increasing and later decreasing. Otherwise, the spreading distance and the height of the molten solder increases as the droplet volume increases as the included angle and the contact angle are given as constants, and both the interfacial energy and the gravitational energy increase as well. This research has a wide influence on predicting the outcomes in commercial impact and also gives guidance for those complicated welding operation objects in brazing technique.

Research limitations/implications

It is of very important significance in both science and practice to investigate the differences between the flat surface and V-shaped surface. Some necessary parameters including intrinsic contact angle and surface tension need to be directly measured when the droplet spreads on the flat surface. The relevant simulation conclusions on the inherent characteristics can be given based on these intrinsic parameters. Compared with the flat surface, the V-shaped substrate is chosen for further discuss on the effects of gravity on the droplet spreading behavior and the changes of apparent contact angle which can only occurs as the substrate is inclined. Therefore, this research provides theoretical method and data supports for a future study on interfacial reaction mechanism and spreading mechanism between molten solder and substrate.

Practical implications

The research is developed for verifying the accuracy of the model built in Surface Evolver. Based on this verified model, other researches on the spreading distance along y-axis and the contact area that are especially difficult to be experimentally measured can be directly simulated by Surface Evolver, which can provides a convenient method to discuss the changes of horizontal spreading distance, droplet height and contact area with increasing the included angle of V-shaped substrate or with increasing the droplet volume. Actually, the modeling results are calculated for supplying the theoretical parameters and technical guidance in the welding process.

Social implications

This research provides theoretical method and data supports for a future study on interfacial reaction mechanism and spreading mechanism between molten solder and substrate, which has a wide influence on prediction the outcomes in commercial impact and also gives guidance for those complicated welding operation objects in brazing technique.

Originality/value

Surface Evolver, can also be used to discuss the structure and spreading mechanism of droplets on V-shaped substrates, which have not been discussed before.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 16 June 2021

Francisco Jesús Arjonilla García and Yuichi Kobayashi

This study aims to propose an offline exploratory method that consists of two stages: first, the authors focus on completing the kinematics model of the system by analyzing the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to propose an offline exploratory method that consists of two stages: first, the authors focus on completing the kinematics model of the system by analyzing the Jacobians in the vicinity of the starting point and deducing a virtual input to effectively navigate the system along the non-holonomic constraint. Second, the authors explore the sensorimotor space in a predetermined pattern and obtain an approximate mapping from sensor space to chained form that facilitates controllability.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the authors tackle the controller acquisition problem of unknown sensorimotor model in non-holonomic driftless systems. This feature is interesting to simplify and speed up the process of setting up industrial mobile robots with feedback controllers.

Findings

The authors validate the approach for the test case of the unicycle by controlling the system with time-state control policy. The authors present simulated and experimental results that show the effectiveness of the proposed method, and a comparison with the proximal policy optimization algorithm.

Originality/value

This research indicates clearly that feedback control of non-holonomic systems with uncertain kinematics and unknown sensor configuration is possible.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. 48 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 September 2019

Madjid Tavana and Vahid Hajipour

Expert systems are computer-based systems that mimic the logical processes of human experts or organizations to give advice in a specific domain of knowledge. Fuzzy expert systems…

Abstract

Purpose

Expert systems are computer-based systems that mimic the logical processes of human experts or organizations to give advice in a specific domain of knowledge. Fuzzy expert systems use fuzzy logic to handle uncertainties generated by imprecise, incomplete and/or vague information. The purpose of this paper is to present a comprehensive review of the methods and applications in fuzzy expert systems.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors have carefully reviewed 281 journal publications and 149 conference proceedings published over the past 37 years since 1982. The authors grouped the journal publications and conference proceedings separately accordingly to the methods, application domains, tools and inference systems.

Findings

The authors have synthesized the findings and proposed useful suggestions for future research directions. The authors show that the most common use of fuzzy expert systems is in the medical field.

Originality/value

Fuzzy logic can be used to manage uncertainty in expert systems and solve problems that cannot be solved effectively with conventional methods. In this study, the authors present a comprehensive review of the methods and applications in fuzzy expert systems which could be useful for practicing managers developing expert systems under uncertainty.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 September 2019

Watthanasak Jeamwatthanachai, Mike Wald and Gary Wills

The purpose of this paper is to validate a framework for spatial representation, aka the spatial representation framework (SRF), to define spaces and building information required…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to validate a framework for spatial representation, aka the spatial representation framework (SRF), to define spaces and building information required by people with visual impairment as a foundation of indoor maps for indoor navigation systems.

Design/methodology/approach

The SRF was first created with seven main components by a review of the relevant literature and state-of-the-art technologies shown in the preliminary study. This research comprised of two tasks: investigating problems and behaviors while accessing spaces and buildings by visually impaired people (VIP) and validating the SRF where 45 participants were recruited (30 VIP and 15 experts).

Findings

The findings revealed a list of problems and challenges were used to validate and redefine the spatial representation, which was validated by both VIP and experts. The framework subsequently consisted of 11 components categorized into five layers, each layer of which is responsible for a different function.

Research limitations/implications

This framework provides essential components required for building standard indoor maps as a foundation for indoor navigations systems for people with visual impairment.

Practical implications

This framework lays the foundation for a range of indoor-based applications by using this SRF to represent indoor spaces. Example applications include: indoor navigation by people with disabilities, robots and autonomous systems, security and surveillance, and context and spatial awareness.

Originality/value

This paper presents the validated spatial representation for indoor navigation by people with visual impairment with its details and description, methodology, results and findings of the validation of the SRF.

Details

Journal of Enabling Technologies, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-6263

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 August 2018

Arash Shahin, Nahid Aminsabouri and Kamran Kianfar

The purpose of this paper is to further develop the Decision Making Grid (DMG) proposed by Ashraf Labib (e.g. Labib, 1998, 2004; Fernandez et al., 2003; Aslam-Zainudeen and Labib

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to further develop the Decision Making Grid (DMG) proposed by Ashraf Labib (e.g. Labib, 1998, 2004; Fernandez et al., 2003; Aslam-Zainudeen and Labib, 2011; Stephen and Labib, 2018; Seecharan et al., 2018) by proposing an innovative solution for determining proactive maintenance tactics based on mean time between failures (MTBF) and mean time to repair (MTTR) indicators.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the influence of MTTR and MTBF indicators on proactive maintenance tactics was computed. The tactics included risk-based maintenance (RBM), reliability-centered maintenance (RCM), total productive maintenance (TPM), design out maintenance (DOM), accessibility-centered maintenance (ACM) and business-centered maintenance (BCM). Then, the tactics were allocated to the cells of a DMG with MTTR and MTBF axes. The proposed approach was examined on 32 pieces of equipment of the Esfahan Steel Company and appropriate maintenance tactics were consequently determined.

Findings

The findings indicate that the DOM, BCM, RBM and ACM tactics with weights of 0.86, 0.94, 0.68 and 1.00 are located at the corners of the DMG, respectively. The two remaining tactics of TPM and RCM are located at the middle corners. Also, the results indicate that the share of tactics per spotted equipment in the grid as 62, 22 and 16 percent for RCM, DOM and BCM, respectively.

Research limitations/implications

While reactive and preventive maintenance strategies include corrective, prospective, predetermined, proactive and predictive policies, the focus of this study was merely on the tactics of proactive maintenance policy. The advantage of the developed DMG over Labib’s DMG lies in its application for equipment with the unique condition of the bathtub curve.

Originality/value

While the basic DMG has been mostly used regardless of the type of maintenance policies, this study provides a DMG for a specific application regarding the proactive policy. In addition, the heuristic approach proposed for the development of DMG distinguishes this study from other studies.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 29 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

Keywords

Open Access
Book part
Publication date: 29 November 2023

Abstract

Details

The Emerald Handbook of Research Management and Administration Around the World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80382-701-8

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