University and college libraries have the common quality of being academic institutions whose responsibilities consist wholly or partly in catering for students under instruction. There are nevertheless considerable differences between the functions, and consequently between the architectural requirements, of a university library, restricted in its ambitions only by the possible future needs of a mixed academic society, and those of a college library, with its smaller size and more limited scope. Disregarding youth and poverty as irrelevant to the present purpose, these limitations of scope and size may result either from a less advanced or a more specialized curriculum, or from a combination of both conditions. But in spite of this contrast it would be misleading to treat the needs of colleges as wholly divergent from those of universities, because the possibility of development ought to be kept constantly in view. The recent history of modern university libraries in the British Isles can be summarized as progress from collegiate architecture and administration to a status nearly resembling that of the great national libraries, under the almost universal handicap of want of foresight on the part of the original planners.
One of the most critical gas turbine engine components, the rotor blade tip and casing, is exposed to high thermal load. It becomes a significant design challenge to…
One of the most critical gas turbine engine components, the rotor blade tip and casing, is exposed to high thermal load. It becomes a significant design challenge to protect the turbine materials from this severe situation. The purpose of this paper is to study numerically the effect of turbine inlet temperature on the tip leakage flow structure and heat transfer.
In this paper, the effect of turbine inlet temperature on the tip leakage flow structure and heat transfer has been studied numerically. Uniform low (LTIT: 444 K) and high (HTIT: 800 K) turbine inlet temperature, as well as non‐uniform inlet temperature have been considered.
The results showed the higher turbine inlet temperature yields the higher velocity and temperature variations in the leakage flow aerodynamics and heat transfer. For a given turbine geometry and on‐design operating conditions, the turbine power output can be increased by 1.33 times, when the turbine inlet temperature increases 1.80 times. Whereas the averaged heat fluxes on the casing and the blade tip become 2.71 and 2.82 times larger, respectively. Therefore, about 2.8 times larger cooling capacity is required to keep the same turbine material temperature. Furthermore, the maximum heat flux on the blade tip of high turbine inlet temperature case reaches up to 3.348 times larger than that of LTIT case. The effect of the interaction of stator and rotor on heat transfer features is also explored using unsteady simulations. The non‐uniform turbine inlet temperature enhances the heat flux fluctuation on the blade tip and casing.
The increase of turbine inlet temperature is usually proposed to achieve the higher turbine efficiency and the higher turbine power output. However, it has not been reported how much the heat transfer into the blade tip and casing increases with the increased turbine inlet temperature. This paper investigates the heat transfer distributions on the rotor blade tip and casing, associated with the tip leakage flow under high and low turbine inlet temperatures, as well as non‐uniform temperature distribution.
Most librarians are well known as hoarders of books, periodicals, pamphlets, any material in fact which might be of the slightest value to the users of their libraries…
Most librarians are well known as hoarders of books, periodicals, pamphlets, any material in fact which might be of the slightest value to the users of their libraries. Whenever sufficient space allows, a stack room contains material which is in lesser demand, but even storerooms fill, and that remarkably quickly in these days when national and international agencies compete more and more with the general publisher. Thus the time soon comes when even the most inveterate hoarder has to prune his shelves. In the past he has spent part of his very busy working time producing lists of surplus material, and after much correspondence he has usually been able to dispose of a small part of his unwanted stock. The remainder was often sent for scrap, as only a limited amount of time could be spared for finding suitable locations for it. It can be easily seen that, as far as staff time was concerned, this was an un‐economical method of disposing of duplicates. It was impossible to be sure that even half of the libraries likely to be interested had been approached, and finally a suitable return for the material offered was seldom obtained. With the formation of a national interchange centre, however, all these difficulties have been overcome and a very large amount of material which before had gone to waste has been placed in useful circulation again.
HARROGATE will be notable as the venue of the Conference in one or two ways that distinctive. The Association Year is now to begin on January 1st and not in September as heretofore; and, in consequence, there will be no election of president or of new council until the end of the year. The Association's annual election is to take place in November, and the advantages of this arrangement must be apparent to everyone who considers the matter. Until now the nominations have been sent out at a time when members have been scattered to all parts of the country on holiday, and committees of the Council have been elected often without the full consideration that could be given in the more suitable winter time. In the circumstances, at Harrogate the Chair will still be occupied by Sir Henry Miers, who has won from all librarians and those interested in libraries a fuller measure of admiration, if that were possible, than he possessed before he undertook the presidency. There will be no presidential address in the ordinary sense, although Sir Henry Miers will make a speech in the nature of an address from the Chair at one of the meetings. What is usually understood by the presidential address will be an inaugural address which it is hoped will be given by Lord Irwin. The new arrangement must bring about a new state of affairs in regard to the inaugural addresses. We take it that in future there will be what will be called a presidential address at the Annual Meeting nine months after the President takes office. He will certainly then be in the position to review the facts of his year with some knowledge of events; he may chronicle as well as prophesy.
OWING to the comparatively early date in the year of the Library Association Conference, this number of THE LIBRARY WORLD is published so that it may be in the hands of our readers before it begins. The official programme is not in the hands of members at the time we write, but the circumstances are such this year that delay has been inevitable. We have dwelt already on the good fortune we enjoy in going to the beautiful West‐Country Spa. At this time of year it is at its best, and, if the weather is more genial than this weather‐chequered year gives us reason to expect, the Conference should be memorable on that account alone. The Conference has always been the focus of library friendships, and this idea, now that the Association is so large, should be developed. To be a member is to be one of a freemasonry of librarians, pledged to help and forward the work of one another. It is not in the conference rooms alone, where we listen, not always completely awake, to papers not always eloquent or cleverly read, that we gain most, although no one would discount these; it is in the hotels and boarding houses and restaurants, over dinner tables and in the easy chairs of the lounges, that we draw out really useful business information. In short, shop is the subject‐matter of conference conversation, and only misanthropic curmudgeons think otherwise.
WE publish this issue on the eve of the Brighton Conference and our hope is that this number of The Library World will assist the objects of that meeting. Everything connected with the Conference appears to have been well thought out. It is an excellent thing that an attempt has been made to get readers of papers to write them early in order that they might be printed beforehand. Their authors will speak to the subject of these papers and not read them. Only a highly‐trained speaker can “get over” a written paper—witness some of the fiascos we hear from the microphone, for which all papers that are broadcast have to be written. But an indifferent reader, when he is really master of his subject, can make likeable and intelligible remarks extemporarily about it. As we write somewhat before the Conference papers are out we do not know if the plan to preprint the papers has succeeded. We are sure that it ought to have done so. It is the only way in which adequate time for discussion can be secured.
This article summarises different approaches to defining what constitutes a drug‐related death (DRDs) and how they can be classified. DRDs usually fall into two broad…
This article summarises different approaches to defining what constitutes a drug‐related death (DRDs) and how they can be classified. DRDs usually fall into two broad categories: (a) those directly attributable to the consumption of drugs (both illegal and licit) eg. overdose and poisoning, and (b) indirect ‐ those which occur as a consequence of having a drug habit that exposes individuals to the risk of dying in some other way, eg. blood‐borne infections, accidents. Most attention is currently given to direct or ‘acute’ DRDs rather than the long‐term consequences of drug abuse. Problems associated with accurately deriving DRD statistics are outlined. Despite their limitations, such information is essential for identifying issues related to drug use and measuring progress against targets set for reducing DRDs.
WE offer our readers good wishes for 1939. We hope that every kind of library may be allowed in peace to pursue its development for the spreading of good reading, to the end that enlightenment and with it wisdom may prevail amongst our millions of readers. We hope too that it will be another year of progress in service, in good and deftly‐employed technique, in the development of the will to make libraries interesting, attractive, useful and indeed inevitable and essential to all men. For librarians we hope it may be a further stage in the promotion of their profession, of growth of their own faith in it, and of increase in the willingness of those who employ librarians in municipalities, counties, colleges and other places to recognize training and service with better pay, prospects and status. We know that appreciation will not give greater willingness to serve; we do know it will give greater happiness.
ON another page will be found preliminary notes with regard to the Annual Conference of the Library Association at Liverpool. We have before us at the time of writing only an outline of the programme, but we hope to foreshadow in the May Number further features of the June Meeting, and to publish articles on the Literary Associations and Libraries of Liverpool.
Our South African correspondent writes:—Considerable damage has been done to the University Library of the Witwatersrand as the result of an extensive fire which destroyed a large part of the collection and the building. The Library was, in the course of the past year, in process of reorganisation….. A plea for closer co‐operation between the libraries of South Africa was made by Mr. Percy Freer of Johannesburg at a meeting of the Witwatersrand and Victoria Branch of the South African Library Association. Mr. Freer said that most of the libraries were concentrating on particular subjects, and it was desirable that all libraries should be able to draw on the resources of each other. He suggested that the following libraries should function as regional centres with a view to relieving pressure on the National Central Library: the South African Public Library (Cape Town), Bloemfontein (operating with Kimberley), Maritzburg (with Durban), Johannesburg, Bulawayo and Port Elizabeth. The headquarters of the National Central Library itself should be attached to the State Library at Pretoria. A union catalogue and other bibliographical aids were desirable…. Dr. Gie (Secretary for Education) has been urging teachers to have a greater regard for books. He had been astonished to learn from recent investigations that many teachers not only did not read current books and periodicals regularly, but did not keep in touch with current topics through the newspapers. He advised teachers to assist in setting up libraries and centres where they did not exist.