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1 – 10 of 170
Article
Publication date: 1 February 1994

K. Minten, K. Kitchens and J. Cisson

In the preceding three parts of this series, the authors have extensively reviewed and quantified the special processing sequences required for the ‘additive’ and…

Abstract

In the preceding three parts of this series, the authors have extensively reviewed and quantified the special processing sequences required for the ‘additive’ and ‘semi‐additive’ process strategies of PWB manufacture. In this, the fourth part of the series of five, they wish to present a series of full build processes which meet all the interconnect requirements of the 1990s while eliminating the drawbacks traditionally associated with additive processes.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1993

K. Minten and J. Cisson

This, the third in a series of papers, reports an investigation of the semi‐additive process strategies of PWB manufacture. It will show that, although the adoption of a…

Abstract

This, the third in a series of papers, reports an investigation of the semi‐additive process strategies of PWB manufacture. It will show that, although the adoption of a ‘naked’ palladium catalyst is the optimal production strategy in terms of cost, caution must be exercised in its implementation, particularly with regard to material process flow and solder mask type employed. It will be demonstrated that the use of a thin, sacrificial ‘flash’ of electroless copper prior to circuitisation and full build deposition will be required for the liquid photoimageable soldermask (LPISM) approach.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1991

K. Minten and J. Toth

Two current full build electroless copper deposits were investigated. This paper demonstrates that there are fundamental differences in the nature of their deposits. The…

Abstract

Two current full build electroless copper deposits were investigated. This paper demonstrates that there are fundamental differences in the nature of their deposits. The consequences of these differences are highlighted for the PWB manufacturer.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1992

J. Cisson, J. Seigo and K. Minten

This paper constitutes a follow‐up to earlier work published in Circuit World, Vol. 17, No. 4. The first paper studied the metallographic structures of two commercially…

Abstract

This paper constitutes a follow‐up to earlier work published in Circuit World, Vol. 17, No. 4. The first paper studied the metallographic structures of two commercially available full build electroless copper foils. Part 2 reports the investigations carried out into the etching characteristics of these copper foils, chemically deposited from full build electroless copper baths designated high elongation (HE) and high strength (HS). It is shown that, although attention should be given to the choice of etchant for these copper foils, they do not exhibit an uncontrollable etch rate, as is often feared.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 7 June 2021

Gregory S. Cooper, Karl M. Rich, Bhavani Shankar and Vinay Rana

Agricultural aggregation schemes provide numerous farmer-facing benefits, including reduced transportation costs and improved access to higher-demand urban markets…

Abstract

Purpose

Agricultural aggregation schemes provide numerous farmer-facing benefits, including reduced transportation costs and improved access to higher-demand urban markets. However, whether aggregation schemes also have positive food security dimensions for consumers dependent on peri-urban and local markets in developing country contexts is currently unknown. This paper aims to narrow this knowledge gap by exploring the actors, governance structures and physical infrastructures of the horticultural value chain of Bihar, India, to identify barriers to using aggregation to improve the distribution of fruits and vegetables to more local market environments.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses mixed methods. Quantitative analysis of market transaction data explores the development of aggregation supply pathways over space and time. In turn, semi-structured interviews with value chain actors uncover the interactions and decision-making processes with implications for equitable fruit and vegetable delivery.

Findings

Whilst aggregation successfully generates multiple producer-facing benefits, the supply pathways tend to cluster around urban export-oriented hubs, owing to the presence of high-capacity traders, large consumer bases and traditional power dynamics. Various barriers across the wider enabling environment must be overcome to unlock the potential for aggregation to increase local fruit and vegetable delivery, including informal governance structures, cold storage gaps and underdeveloped transport infrastructures.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first critical analysis of horticultural aggregation through a consumer-sensitive lens. The policy-relevant lessons are pertinent to the equitable and sustainable development of horticultural systems both in Bihar and in similar low- and middle-income settings.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 November 2015

Kevin Z Chen, Pramod K Joshi, Enjiang Cheng and Pratap S Birthal

The purpose of this paper is to synthesize lessons from the agricultural value chain models and their associated financing mechanisms in China and India as to provide…

3721

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to synthesize lessons from the agricultural value chain models and their associated financing mechanisms in China and India as to provide policy recommendations on how best to facilitate development of efficient and inclusive value chains.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper builds on a review of the existing literature on agricultural value chains and their financing mechanisms, and draws lessons from it for strengthening interface between product and financial markets in order to enable smallholders capture benefits of the value addition.

Findings

From the comparative review of value chain financing mechanisms and current policy contexts the authors find dominance of internal financing of value chains (in terms of provision of inputs, technology and services) in both the countries. Value chain finance from commercial banks and other financial institutions is limited and mainly through tripartite agreements among the financing institutions, lead firms and farmers.

Practical implications

The lessons drawn from various value chain models and their financing mechanisms provide feedback to financial institutions and policymakers to take measures to strengthen value chain finance in smallholder agriculture.

Originality/value

The paper undertakes a rigorous review of the existing value chain models and their financing mechanisms in light of the most recent research on emerging innovations and development strategies, in order to glean key lessons for policy recommendations on strengthening linkages between financial and product markets.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 28 February 2020

Subir Bairagi, Matty Demont, Marie Claire Custodio and Jhoanne Ynion

The purpose of this paper is to analyze geographic heterogeneity of consumer preferences for intrinsic quality attributes of rice in South and Southeast Asia and the…

1926

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze geographic heterogeneity of consumer preferences for intrinsic quality attributes of rice in South and Southeast Asia and the drivers of demand for these attributes, with a particular focus on rice fragrance and the role of gender.

Design/methodology/approach

Stated-preference surveys were conducted with 4,231 urban and rural consumers in 37 cities across seven countries (Bangladesh, India, Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam) during 2013–2014 and analyzed through a rank-ordered logistic regression with incomplete ranking choice data.

Findings

Preferences for rice attributes are found to be significantly heterogeneous among consumers in South and Southeast Asia. Urban Thai consumers tend to prioritize appearance and cooking characteristics over taste and nutritional benefits, relative to all other surveyed consumers. In contrast with South Asian consumers, Southeast Asian consumers have largely adopted Thai preferences for rice texture and fragrance, a trend that was earlier coined “Jasminization.” We find that demand for rice fragrance is mainly driven by women, educated consumers, large families, families spending a lower share of their food expenditures on rice, and consumers in Southeast Asia (particularly the Philippines and Cambodia).

Originality/value

Little is known about geographic heterogeneity, drivers, and the role of gender in demand for rice fragrance. This paper fills these knowledge gaps. Our findings suggest that the more women are empowered in grocery decision-making, the more demand for aromatic rice is expected to rise. These insights can assist market-driven and gender-responsive rice breeding programs in simultaneously enhancing rice farmers' livelihoods and gender equity.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 May 2017

David L. Ortega and David L. Tschirley

Food safety in emerging and developing regions is receiving increased attention from economists, researchers and policymakers. The purpose of this paper is to provide a…

2053

Abstract

Purpose

Food safety in emerging and developing regions is receiving increased attention from economists, researchers and policymakers. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the literature on the economics of food safety in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Of interest are studies exploring consumer demand and producer behavior regarding food safety. Particular attention is given to areas in need of additional research. The studies’ common implications for future research are discussed.

Design/methodology/approach

Two English language searches were conducted in the summer of 2013 to identify relevant studies on the economics of food safety, one each in Google Scholar and Web of Science. The authors carefully reviewed the abstracts of these studies for content, and select papers were identified that capture overarching themes found in the literature. Findings are presented by region.

Findings

Consumers in developing countries will become increasingly aware of food safety issues as urbanization proceeds and incomes continue to rise at robust rates. However, assuring food safety in modernizing food systems involves significant costs, and current incomes in developing SSA are far lower than in Asia. The authors find that overall consumer awareness of food safety problems in SSA is low relative to Asia. Moreover, knowledge of producer behavior and consumer demand for food safety in developing countries is very limited.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations include a lack of information available on domestic food safety issues and overall knowledge of how food safety affects developing agrifood systems.

Originality/value

The findings from this review contribute to a better understanding of the economics of food safety in emerging and developing regions.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 January 2020

Yeong Sheng Tey, Abdulla Ibragimov, Mark Brindal, Shaufique F. Sidique, Rustam Abduraupov and Miraziz Makhmudov

Paddy farmers form the backbone of food security. However, poverty plagues them despite having linked them to the rice value chain. To overcome this, the concept of…

Abstract

Purpose

Paddy farmers form the backbone of food security. However, poverty plagues them despite having linked them to the rice value chain. To overcome this, the concept of involving smallholders in post-farm value chain stages is promoted. The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential of upgrading smallholder involvement in rice value chains through the adoption of a sustainability standard.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors built a system dynamic model to capture both conventional and certified sub-value chains. The latter deviates from the conventional one and capitalizes on compliance to a sustainability standard.

Findings

When compared to conventional farm gate sales methods, the simulations revealed obvious profitability of direct marketing with respect to certified sustainable rice. Although coupled with productivity growth, the simulations indicated the shift to standard adoption would likely to be both limited and slow.

Originality/value

The findings suggest that the profitability of a certified rice value chain will remain fettered. In order to enhance both farmer livelihood and food security, given the limited prospect of moving smallholders up that chain, the authors conclude that national policy should be rationalized and concentrated on the possibility of diversifying the end-use of rice through research, development and subsequent commercialization.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 September 2019

Arun Jose and PrasannaVenkatesan Shanmugam

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the significant supply chain issues in the small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) food industry. The objectives are to…

1466

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the significant supply chain issues in the small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) food industry. The objectives are to identify the major themes and the dynamic evolution of SME food supply chain (FSC) issues, the current research trends, the different modelling approaches used in SME FSC, and the most addressed SME food sector.

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 3,733 published articles from 2002 to 2018 in the Clarivate Analytics Web of Science database were collected, from which 1,091 articles were shortlisted for the review. The authors used bibliographic coupling combined with co-word analysis to identify the historical relations of the research themes that emerged during the periods 2002–2014 and 2002–2018.

Findings

This research identified five major research themes such as production and distribution in alternative food networks, relationship, safety and standards in the FSC, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impact of the farm food system, traceability and product quality in FSC and asymmetric price transmission in the FSC. Among the identified themes, GHG emission impact of the farm food system and traceability and product quality in the FSC have received increasing attention in recent years. The dairy sector is the most addressed sector (36 per cent), followed by fruits and vegetables (27 per cent), meat and poultry (18 per cent), seafood (10 per cent) and grains and oilseed (8 per cent). It is also identified that the dairy sector has received significant attention in the “GHG Emission impact of farm food system” theme. Similarly, meat and poultry sectors have received much attention in the “Traceability and product quality in the food supply chain” theme. Also, the authors identified that the empirical modelling approaches are the most commonly used solution methodology, followed by the conceptual/qualitative methods in the SME FSC.

Originality/value

This study maps and summarizes the existing knowledge base of supply chain issues in the SME food sector. The results of this review provide the major research areas, most commonly used approaches and food sectors addressed. This study also highlights the research gaps and potential future research direction.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

Keywords

1 – 10 of 170