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Article
Publication date: 16 December 2019

K. Jayaraman, Nelvin XeChung Leow, David Asirvatham and Ho Ree Chan

Global issues on the environment, such as climate change, air pollution and carbon monoxide emission, are the primary concerns in any part of the world. The purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

Global issues on the environment, such as climate change, air pollution and carbon monoxide emission, are the primary concerns in any part of the world. The purpose of this paper is to construct a conceptual framework for the travel behavior performance of a commuter, and it is expected to mitigate air pollution from vehicle emission and to promote smart mobility on the road.

Design/methodology/approach

From the extensive literature review, the conceptual framework for the travel behavior performance of a commuter has been developed and is supported by the theory of interpersonal behavior (TIB), whose functions are attitude, social factor, affect and habit. In the present paper, attitude is conceptualized by four predictors, namely confidence in driving, green environment, social responsibility and deviation in driving. The social factor is characterized by subjective norms, social status and digitalization. Affect factor is conceptualized by accidents and damages, road infrastructure, and weather conditions. The mental block in following the ancestor’s way of owning a personal vehicle is the predictor for the habit.

Findings

One of the major contributors to environmental damages is road traffic. Notably, vehicle emissions are on the rise every year due to the increase of reliance on vehicles, and there is no alternative to this issue. Although Malaysia has a well-organized infrastructure with effective digitalized technology on the road for the transport system, there is severe traffic congestion in Klang Valley, Kuala Lumpur, because of a lack of travel plan behavior during peak hours. If the road commuters give the predictors constructed in the proposed conceptual framework the highest importance, then there will be much relief to traffic congestion on the road.

Research limitations/implications

Since the present study focuses on the conceptualization of an urban travel behavior model (UTBM), and also highlights the synchronization of the proposed framework with the management theory, the results are expected after the primary survey based on the cross-sectional study will be conducted.

Originality/value

The identification of the suitable predictors for the UTBM toward the travel behavior performance of a commuter is the real novelty of the present study. Also, the cause and effect relationships of different predictors in terms of path directions of the proposed research framework are the highlights of the study. Further, the predictors in the proposed framework and the TIB have been synchronized with operational definitions, which are the original contributions of the present study, which will enhance the sustainable environmental development for the society as a whole.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 11 March 2019

Alexandra S. Kang, K. Jayaraman, Keng Lin Soh and Wai Peng Wong

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of social sustainable consumption in the context of improved ridership in public bus transport (PBT). It…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of social sustainable consumption in the context of improved ridership in public bus transport (PBT). It investigated the social predictors and implementation intention of drivers to use PBT.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical data were collected through online survey. The respondents of the online survey were 313 drivers in Penang, Malaysia. A conceptual model was designed to test implementation intention of the drivers in using the PBT. Data analysis was performed using the variance-based structural equation modeling technique of partial least squares.

Findings

The findings indicate that the drivers’ intention to use PBT is significantly influenced by their referent group, gender role, and commitment to environment. In addition, their implementation intention is significantly predicted by the intention to use PBT.

Research limitations/implications

This study was performed in Penang using convenience sampling method. The results need to be replicated using a different sample in other developing countries to test its stability.

Practical implications

Policy makers and transport managers need to be guided by the importance of the drivers’ referent group, gender role, commitment to environment, and intention in order to improve ridership of the PBT.

Originality/value

The research on referent group, gender role, commitment to environment, intention, and the implementation intention of the drivers using the theory of interpersonal behavior in PBT is unprecedented.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 17 October 2008

T.K. Jayaraman and Chee‐Keong Choong

Under the fixed exchange rate regime Fiji's currency, which is pegged to a basket of currencies of its major trading partners, has been experiencing severe pressures. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Under the fixed exchange rate regime Fiji's currency, which is pegged to a basket of currencies of its major trading partners, has been experiencing severe pressures. The purpose of this paper is to study annual exchange market pressure (EMP) over a 31‐year (1975‐2005) period and attempt to determine the factors behind EMP.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper employs the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing procedure, which is applied to a multivariate model covering four variables, namely EMP in index numbers, and budget deficit, domestic credit to private sector and external debt, all the three expressed as percentages of gross domestic product. Additionally, an uncertainty variable is added to the regression analysis with a view to finding out whether political uncertainty has been responsible for speculative attacks on currency. Existence of a cointegration vector is then investigated. It is then followed by Granger‐causality tests in an error‐correction model with view to exploring the short‐ and long‐term relationships between the variables.

Findings

The study findings are: there existed a long‐run relationship between EMP and budget deficit, domestic credit to private sector, external debt and political uncertainty; and EMP was positively related to budget deficit, domestic credit to private sector and external debt as well as speculative pressures exercised by political uncertainty.

Originality/value

The empirical study on EMP in the South Pacific Island countries and in Fiji in particular is the first of its kind. The paper is expected to promote further interest in the studies of currencies of small island countries.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 35 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2012

K. Jayaraman, Teo Leam Kee and Keng Lin Soh

The electronic manufacturing service (EMS) industry recognizes Lean Six Sigma (LSS) as an effective business strategy to strive for cost reduction and improve the…

Abstract

Purpose

The electronic manufacturing service (EMS) industry recognizes Lean Six Sigma (LSS) as an effective business strategy to strive for cost reduction and improve the profitability and growth of a company. There are many factors affecting the success of an LSS program to meet desired profitability and growth. The purpose of this paper is to identify the critical success factors (CSFs) in successful LSS programs and to evaluate the CSFs’ impact on company performance.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is carried out using the quantitative survey method containing structured questionnaires. The study population comprises the six multinational EMS industries in Malaysia that have successfully implemented LSS programs. The LSS practitioners, namely the holders of the Master Black Belt (MBB), the Black Belt (BB) and the LSS champions of the various international manufacturing sites of the six multinational EMS in Malaysia form the respondents.

Findings

The significance of this research is the identification of CFSs for the successful implementation of LSS within the EMS industry. It has identified management engagement and commitment as the most critical to the success of implementing the companies’ LSS programs. Moreover, an effective LSS training, an established LSS dashboard, a frequent communication among all value streams of organizations and a supportive organizational culture are also found to be essential ingredients for the implementation of LSS.

Practical implications

The paper advises of the nurturing of appropriate CSFs for successful implementation of LSS in the EMS industry and to evaluate its impact on the company performance.

Originality/value

This research adds a new body of knowledge containing factors in the implementation of LSS that are significant in their relationships with operational and organizational performances in the EMS industry, using primary data. The results would provide the EMS industry and other Malaysian SME companies with guidelines for the successful implementation of Lean Six Sigma with the intention to remain competitive.

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2012

Jiangping Chen, Ren Ding, Shan Jiang and Ryan Knudson

The purpose of this study is to evaluate freely available machine translation (MT) services' performance in translating metadata records.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate freely available machine translation (MT) services' performance in translating metadata records.

Design/methodology/approach

Randomly selected metadata records were translated from English into Chinese using Google, Bing, and SYSTRAN MT systems. These translations were then evaluated using a five point scale for both fluency and adequacy. Missing count (words not translated) and incorrect count (words incorrectly translated) were also recorded.

Findings

Concerning both fluency and adequacy, Google and Bing's translations of more than 70 percent of test data received scores equal to or greater than three, representative of “non‐native Chinese” and “much coverage,” respectively. SYSTRAN scored lowest in both measures. However, these differences were not statistically significant. A Pearson correlation analysis demonstrated a strong relationship (r=0.86) between fluency and adequacy. Missing count and incorrect count strongly correlated with fluency and adequacy.

Originality/value

Most existing digital collections can be accessed in English alone. Few digital collections in the USA support multilingual information access (MLIA) that enables users of differing languages to search, browse, recognize and use information in the collections. Human translation is one solution, but it is neither time nor cost effective for most libraries. This study serves as a first step to understand the performance of current MT systems and to design effective and efficient MLIA services for digital collections.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

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Article
Publication date: 17 July 2020

Gustavo Cesário, Ricardo Lopes Cardoso and Renato Santos Aranha

This paper aims to analyse how the supreme audit institution (SAI) monitors related party transactions (RPTs) in the Brazilian public sector. It considers definitions and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyse how the supreme audit institution (SAI) monitors related party transactions (RPTs) in the Brazilian public sector. It considers definitions and disclosure policies of RPTs by international accounting and auditing standards and their evolution since 1980.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on archival research on international standards and using an interpretive approach, the authors investigated definitions and disclosure policies. Using a topic model based on latent Dirichlet allocation, the authors performed a content analysis on over 59,000 SAI decisions to assess how the SAI monitors RPTs.

Findings

The SAI investigates nepotism (a kind of RPT) and conflicts of interest up to eight times more frequently than related parties. Brazilian laws prevent nepotism and conflicts of interest, but not RPTs in general. Indeed, Brazilian public-sector accounting standards have not converged towards IPSAS 20, and ISSAI 1550 does not adjust auditing procedures to suit the public sector.

Research limitations/implications

The SAI follows a legalistic auditing approach, indicating a need for regulation of related public-sector parties to improve surveillance. In addition to Brazil, other code law countries might face similar circumstances.

Originality/value

Public-sector RPTs are an under-investigated field, calling for attention by academics and standard-setters. Text mining and latent Dirichlet allocation, while mature techniques, are underexplored in accounting and auditing studies. Additionally, the Python script created to analyse the audit reports is available at Mendeley Data and may be used to perform similar analyses with minor adaptations.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2018

Seyedeh Khadijeh Taghizadeh, Syed Abidur Rahman and Md. Mosharref Hossain

This paper examines the influence of three dimensions of customer knowledge management – knowledge from customer, knowledge for customer and knowledge about customer – on…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines the influence of three dimensions of customer knowledge management – knowledge from customer, knowledge for customer and knowledge about customer – on innovation capabilities (speed and quality) and new service market performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The model links three dimensions of customer knowledge management to two dimensions of innovation capabilities. Further, the model links two dimensions of innovation capabilities to new service market performance. Analysis was conducted through structural equation modelling using SmartPLS software, using data from 253 managers representing 26 banks in Bangladesh.

Findings

The findings of this study show that knowledge from customer and knowledge for customer are the most influential predictors of new service market performance. Of the three dimensions of customer knowledge management, knowledge from customer turns out to be the strongest predictor of innovation quality and speed. Innovation quality has a greater impact on new service market performance than innovation speed. Innovation capability (quality and speed) plays a mediating role in this study.

Practical implications

Managing knowledge from, for and about customer should be systematically considered as a synergy approach to firms’ processes and activities to co-create value with customers. In particular, managers should put more emphasis on knowledge from and for customer to enhance innovation capacity and achieve success in the development of a new service.

Originality/value

This paper empirically supports the significant influence of knowledge from, for and about customer on innovation capabilities (quality and speed) and new service market performance. While the results provide guidance for researchers and practitioners, it also adds value to innovation-related research.

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 15 February 2021

Alana Mann

Abstract

Details

Food in a Changing Climate
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-725-9

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Book part
Publication date: 25 September 2017

Shyama V. Ramani, Ajay Thutupalli, Mhamed-Ali El-Aroui and Praachi Kumar

Agri-biotech multinational enterprises (MNEs) are persisting to push genetically modified plant varieties (GMV) worldwide including emerging countries as a technological…

Abstract

Agri-biotech multinational enterprises (MNEs) are persisting to push genetically modified plant varieties (GMV) worldwide including emerging countries as a technological solution for sustainable development. However, in emerging countries, the structure and effectiveness of regulation and compliance measures to ensure human and environmental safety are much less developed. There are three types of concerns: the economic risks faced by farmers while using existing low-yielding conventional seed varieties, in the face of inadequate institutional mechanisms and safety nets, the long-term environmental risks, and finally, risks posed by other possible externalities. In an attempt to provide some insight on the aforementioned debate, this chapter focuses on a commercially successful GMV—namely genetically modified cotton, also referred to as Bt cotton. The literature on adoption of Bt cotton is first examined, and its findings are confronted with the reality of the introduction and diffusion of Bt cotton in India to derive inferences on how MNE and emerging countries’ governments can manage coexistence. Our findings indicate that in order to be successful, MNEs have to establish the sociopolitical legitimacy of GMV through investment in outreach with regulatory authorities, government departments dealing with the environmental and bio safety, farmer groups, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). MNEs also have to keep in mind that pricing and high technology fee can become an impediment for the legitimization of technology. Finally, MNEs can partner with NGOs to educate and accompany farmers to maximize their livelihood, while preserving the ecological sustainability of their farm lands.

Details

Multinational Enterprises and Sustainable Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-163-8

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 November 2018

Femi Emmanuel Ayo

Service quality is an evaluation of how well a delivered service meets customers’ expectations. The purpose of this paper is to provide a reliable scale of measurement for…

Abstract

Purpose

Service quality is an evaluation of how well a delivered service meets customers’ expectations. The purpose of this paper is to provide a reliable scale of measurement for service quality in banks.

Design/methodology/approach

The SERVQUAL model was adopted based on a Banking Service Quality (BSQ) model and a two-phase multiobjective optimization model was designed. A structured questionnaire with five-point Likert scale was administered with a 93 percent response rate of 270 sample size. A total of 22 variables were considered based on the BSQ model and the significance of these variables to customers’ satisfaction were investigated. Factor analysis was used to extract the most influential factors on the measure of service quality and four factors were selected namely: they deliver when promised, precision on account statements, queues that move rapidly and sufficient number of ATMs per branch. In order to determine the reliability of the multiple Likert questions in the survey, Cronbach’s α was used indicating a scale reliability of 0.743. Moreover, multiple regression analysis was carried out on the selected factors to design an objective function for the design and evaluation of service quality model. The model design used for benchmarking was done using multiobjective genetic algorithm in MATLAB. Similarly, the model evaluation was done in a java interface using multiobjective particle swamp optimization.

Findings

The evaluation results validated the designed model and showed that the factors they deliver when promised and queues that move rapidly are a more reliable scale of measurement for customer’s satisfaction than the factors precision on account statements and sufficient number of ATMs per branch.

Research limitations/implications

The implication of the results is that effectiveness and assurance combined with access is a more significant factor for measuring customers’ satisfaction than tangibles based on the BSQ model.

Originality/value

The introduction of a two-phase optimization model for model benchmarking and evaluation as compared to ordinary factor analysis of the dimension constructs.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

Keywords

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