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Diane Felmlee, Paulina Inara Rodis and Sara Chari Francisco

Online aggression represents a serious, and regularly occurring, social problem. In this piece the authors consider derogatory, harmful messages on the social media…

Abstract

Online aggression represents a serious, and regularly occurring, social problem. In this piece the authors consider derogatory, harmful messages on the social media platform, Twitter, that target one of three groups of women, Asians, Blacks, and Latinx. The research focuses on messages that include one of the most common female slurs, “b!tch.” The findings of this chapter reveal that aggressive messages oriented toward women of color can be vicious and easily accessible (located in fewer than 30 seconds). Using an intersectional approach, the authors note the distinctive experiences of online harassment for women of color. The findings highlight the manner in which detrimental stereotypes are reinforced, including that of the “eroticized and obedient Asian woman,” the “angry Black woman,” and the “poor Latinx woman.” In some exceptions, women use the term “b!tch” in a positive and empowering manner, likely in an attempt to “reclaim” one of the common words used to attack females. Applying a social network perspective, we illustrate the tendency of typically hostile tweets to develop into interactive network conversations, where the original message spreads beyond the victim, and in the case of public individuals, quite widely. This research contributes to a deeper understanding of the processes that lead to online harassment, including the fortification of typical norms and social dominance. Finally, the authors find that messages that use the word “b!tch” to insult Asian, Black, and Latinx women are particularly damaging in that they reinforce traditional stereotypes of women and ethno-racial minorities, and these messages possess the ability to extend to wider audiences.

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Wallace E. Huffman

Purpose – The objective of this chapter is to examine and provide new perspectives on the contributions of public and private R&D to biotech crop improvement.

Abstract

Purpose – The objective of this chapter is to examine and provide new perspectives on the contributions of public and private R&D to biotech crop improvement.

Methodology/approach – The chapter examines a set of topics that have affected the way that research is undertaken on plant germplasm improvement and how it has changed with the genetically modified (GM) trait revolution.

Findings – Although the basic science providing the foundations for GM crops was undertaken in the public sector, GM traits and GM crop varieties have been developed almost exclusively by the private sector. The biotech events leading to GM traits are currently being developed largely by five companies – all having ties to both the chemical and the seed industries. The GM crop revolution started in North American in 1996 and has spread slowly to the largest developing countries that have large agricultural sectors, including Argentina, China, Brazil, and India, but not to Europe or Japan.

Practical implication – To shed new light on the economic reasons for private sector dominance in GM crop varietal development in selected crops but not in others.

Social implication – Shows how GM traits have contributed to technical change and declining real food prices.

Details

Genetically Modified Food and Global Welfare
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-758-2

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International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

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Evan Ortlieb and Susan Schatz

Purpose – The gradual release of responsibility (GRR) framework has long been used as a model to provide explicit and scaffolded literacy instruction (Pearson & Gallagher

Abstract

Purpose – The gradual release of responsibility (GRR) framework has long been used as a model to provide explicit and scaffolded literacy instruction (Pearson & Gallagher, 1983), but has seen far less application within the teaching of writing. As such, a framework for further incorporating the GRR model into comprehensive writing instruction is presented.

Design – This chapter describes a recursive writing process that includes four iterative and connected steps: we study, we write, we share, and we react and revise. From direct modeling needed to build efficacy (Bloomberg & Pitchford, 2017), prompting in the “we do it together phase” (Fisher & Frey, 2016), and peer collaboration offering students the opportunity to move from the solve it together to the self-regulated stage of learning, the GRR model of writing supports students as they move recursively between the phases of learning.

Findings – The recursive nature of the GRR model of writing offers scaffolded support calibrated to each student’s phase of learning. The gradual release model of recursive writing provides an opportunity for students and teachers to engage in a feedback cycle and permit teachers to pass the pen to students at an ideal time, often encompassing many opportunities to write, react, and revise with their peers serving as an authentic audience.

Practical implications – Writing proficiency is linked to relationship building and social networks (Swan & Shih, 2005) as well as academic and career success (Cormier, Bulut, McGrew, & Frison, 2016). The GRR model of writing offers a new model of a flexible, social, and recursive writing process needed in professional development and teacher education programs.

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The Gradual Release of Responsibility in Literacy Research and Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-447-7

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Book part

Linus Dahlander, Lars Bo Jeppesen and Henning Piezunka

Crowdsourcing – a form of collaboration across organizational boundaries – provides access to knowledge beyond an organization’s local knowledge base. Integrating work on…

Abstract

Crowdsourcing – a form of collaboration across organizational boundaries – provides access to knowledge beyond an organization’s local knowledge base. Integrating work on organization theory and innovation, the authors first develop a framework that characterizes crowdsourcing into a main sequential process, through which organizations (1) define the task they wish to have completed; (2) broadcast to a pool of potential contributors; (3) attract a crowd of contributors; and (4) select among the inputs they receive. For each of these phases, the authors identify the key decisions organizations make, provide a basic explanation for each decision, discuss the trade-offs organizations face when choosing among decision alternatives, and explore how organizations may resolve these trade-offs. Using this decision-centric approach, the authors continue by showing that there are fundamental interdependencies in the process that makes the coordination of crowdsourcing challenging.

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Managing Inter-organizational Collaborations: Process Views
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-592-0

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Article

Renate Thienel, Marc Bryant, Gavin Hazel, Jaelea Skehan and Ross Tynan

Media reporting and portrayals of mental illness and suicide can play an important role in shaping and reinforcing community attitudes and perceptions. Depending on the…

Abstract

Purpose

Media reporting and portrayals of mental illness and suicide can play an important role in shaping and reinforcing community attitudes and perceptions. Depending on the content, a report about suicide can have either a negative (Werther-) or a positive (Papageno-) effect. Evidence-informed recommendations for the reporting of suicide in Australia are provided under the Mindframe initiative. The purpose of this paper is to assess the application of these recommendations in broadcasts associated with one of the largest national campaigns to promote suicide prevention, the R U OK? Day, a yearly campaign of the Australian suicide prevention charity R U OK?

Design/methodology/approach

The sample consisted of 112 (32 TV, 80 radio) Australian broadcasts discussing the R U OK? Day suicide prevention campaign during the month preceding the 2015 campaign and on the national R U OK? Day itself. Broadcasts were coded for medium (TV or radio), content (suicide focus, mental illness focus or both) and consistency with Mindframe recommendations.

Findings

Over 97 per cent of broadcasts used language consistent with Mindframe recommendations. None of the broadcasts used images that negatively portrayed mental illness or suicide; there were no instances of using mental illness to describe a person’s behaviour; and no sensationalizing or glamorising terminology was used in the broadcasts. However, less than 40 per cent of the broadcasts included help-seeking information (e.g. helplines) and some of the broadcasts used negative or outdated terminology (e.g. “commit” suicide; “suffering” from mental illness).

Originality/value

The present study is the first to examine consistency with reporting recommendations around a national suicide prevention campaign (R U OK? Day). The results can steer improvements in current reporting and inform strategies to optimise future reporting.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

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Book part

Verena Eberhard, Stephanie Matthes and Joachim Gerd Ulrich

Human beings are dependent upon social approval to strengthen their identities. Therefore, they practice impression management: They anticipate which behaviour provokes…

Abstract

Human beings are dependent upon social approval to strengthen their identities. Therefore, they practice impression management: They anticipate which behaviour provokes which reactions in their social environment, and they tend to exhibit the kind of behaviour that promises positive feedback. Based on the assumption that human beings also show this behaviour in their choice of vocation, we hypothesise that young people are more likely to expect negative reactions from their social environment when choosing a gender-atypical occupation. Furthermore, we assume that the expected reaction of the social environment influences vocational orientation: The anticipation of negative reactions to gender-atypical vocational choice might contribute to explain why young people ignore this occupation. We tested both hypotheses with the help of data retrieved from a survey of young people in Germany who are interested in vocational education and training (VET). The results support our hypotheses; however, they also show that the relevance of a gender-typed vocational choice is weaker if adolescents have a higher educational background. In this case, the choice of an occupation that expresses a high educational status becomes more important. It may lead to an exclusive kind of social approval that is denied to people with a lower educational background.

Details

Gender Segregation in Vocational Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-347-1

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Book part

Steen Steensen, Elsebeth Frey, Harald Hornmoen, Rune Ottosen and Maria Theresa Konow-Lund

This chapter summarises the findings of a case study on social media activity during the 22 July 2011 terrorist attacks in Norway. Based on these findings and on theories…

Abstract

This chapter summarises the findings of a case study on social media activity during the 22 July 2011 terrorist attacks in Norway. Based on these findings and on theories and previous research on the role of social media in situation awareness (SA) configuration during crisis situations, the chapter offers seven recommendations for key communicators in official crisis management and response institutions, journalistic institutions, NGOs and others: (1) acknowledge social media as important and master monitoring and management of features across social media; (2) synchronise communication and establish a standard operating procedure (SOP); (3) establish and make known a joint social media emergency account; (4) participate, interact and take the lead; (5) be aware of non-hashtagged content; (6) implement verification tools and practices and (7) engage with and learn from celebrities.

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Social Media Use in Crisis and Risk Communication
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-269-1

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Article

Jane Wells, Jane Barlow and Sarah Stewart‐Brown

Reviews previous studies of the universal approach to mental health promotion, and disease prevention programmes or interventions in schools. Over 8,000 publications were…

Abstract

Reviews previous studies of the universal approach to mental health promotion, and disease prevention programmes or interventions in schools. Over 8,000 publications were identified initially and 425 studies obtained for further review. The inclusion criteria were met by 17 (mostly US) studies investigating 16 interventions. Positive evidence of effectiveness was obtained for programmes that adopted a whole‐school approach, were implemented continuously for more than a year, and were aimed at the promotion of mental health as opposed to the prevention of mental illness. Provides evidence that universal school mental health promotion programmes can be effective and suggests that long‐term interventions promoting the positive mental health of all pupils and involving changes to the school climate are likely to be more successful than brief class‐based mental illness prevention programmes.

Details

Health Education, vol. 103 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Article

Cristobal Arrieta, Sergio Uribe, Jorge Ramos‐Grez, Alex Vargas, Pablo Irarrazaval, Vicente Parot and Cristian Tejos

In medical applications, it is crucial to evaluate the geometric accuracy of rapid prototyping (RP) models. Current research on evaluating geometric accuracy has focused…

Abstract

Purpose

In medical applications, it is crucial to evaluate the geometric accuracy of rapid prototyping (RP) models. Current research on evaluating geometric accuracy has focused on identifying two or more specific anatomical landmarks on the original structure and the RP model, and comparing their corresponding linear distances. Such kind of accuracy metrics is ambiguous and may induce misrepresentations of the actual errors. The purpose of this paper is to propose an alternative method and metrics to measure the accuracy of RP models.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors propose an accuracy metric composed of two different approaches: a global accuracy evaluation using volumetric intersection indexes calculated over segmented Computed Tomography scans of the original object and the RP model. Second, a local error metric that is computed from the surfaces of the original object and the RP model. This local error is rendered in a 3D surface using a color code, that allow differentiating regions where the model is overestimated, underestimated, or correctly estimated. Global and local error measurements are performed after rigid body registration, segmentation and triangulation.

Findings

The results show that the method can be applied to different objects without any modification, and provide simple, meaningful and precise quantitative indexes to measure the geometric accuracy of RP models.

Originality/value

The paper presents a new approach to characterize the geometric errors in RP models using global indexes and a local surface distribution of the errors. It requires minimum human intervention and it can be applied without any modification to any kind of object.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 18 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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