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Ecology shows us not only environmental problems; it shows that we need a new balance and harmony between individuals, beings, communities and all of Nature. We need a new…
Ecology shows us not only environmental problems; it shows that we need a new balance and harmony between individuals, beings, communities and all of Nature. We need a new contract with Nature (SERRES, 1991) and new Ethics (GUATTARI, 1990) for our lives. What is therefore new in Architecture? The environmental ethics have given us a universal and supra-generational vision of the management of our Nature and, as a consequence, a new way to construct our “second” nature. What is essential for this new architecture that the new ethics demand?
Exploring this subject, the paper firstly analyzes how the relationship between ethics and architecture has been described by other authors. Secondly, how the relationship between mainstream architecture and ecology is evolving, from technical matters to social and more complex issues, to work towards ethics. Finally, the convergence between them (Ethics, Architecture and Nature) could provide the clues to understand the ends and means of eco-architecture.
As a result of this analysis, we interpret that there are underlying keys in the post-eco-architecture. These summarize in new roles for the “locus” and the break of habitual limits of architecture, which have been replaced for new ones. There are no limits of scale: macro-structures such as mega-cities, as well as micro-organism are involved in the architectural process. The client of our construction is universal: we do not build only for our client, we must think about all beings, including animals since we know how our decisions may inflict damage to biodiversity. The site has no boundaries: we know how any local actions can have an effect in remote locations of the planet, since natural phenomena are interconnected. There is also no time limit: we must build now, but we must think about future generations.
Library automation in Spain has undergone considerable growth during the 1990s, with the university library sector in particular making efforts to keep up with automation…
Library automation in Spain has undergone considerable growth during the 1990s, with the university library sector in particular making efforts to keep up with automation trends. Due to the installation of automated management systems in nearly all universities, the creation of university library networks, and the growing accessibility of automated bibliographic information as well as online information such as CDROM, it can be said that university library automation (as opposed to other library sectors) is becoming well established and is developing in a standardised fashion. It is clear that this standardisation aids interlibrary communication, although there is a considerable amount of ground still to be covered. The exchange of bibliographical information required by the Spanish Library System Law (Reglamento del Sistema Español de Bibliotecas) falls well short of what is really needed. The business of cataloguing and classifying library stock continues to take up a lot of time. If shared cataloguing existed, this time could and should be spent on improving user services. The National Library is still not the figurehead of the Spanish system. In conclusion, there is still an appreciable lack of organisation and, on many occasions, projects are started without the necessary planning.
The purpose of this paper is to understand women’s approaches to acquiring financial and other resources is essential for closing the entrepreneurship gender gap. In…
The purpose of this paper is to understand women’s approaches to acquiring financial and other resources is essential for closing the entrepreneurship gender gap. In nearly 40% of economies, women’s early-stage entrepreneurial activity is half or less than half of that of men’s.
Even when there is extensive literature on female entrepreneurs, the authors review the findings through a Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-1)9 crisis lens, trying to find new perspectives and solutions. With the approach of a systematic review of 4,520 publications on financing topics related to female entrepreneurs, various sources of financing available to female entrepreneurs are considered: bootstrapping, banks, business angels, venture capital and crowdfunding.
Identifying potential gender bias both on the supply and the demand side of financing, this research highlights new directions in encouraging female entrepreneurship and gives guidelines to public organisations on how to foster advanced forms of financing for female entrepreneurs in COVID-19 times.
The COVID-19 pandemic has posed an unprecedented challenge for economies and companies. Female entrepreneurs are the ones who have been hit harder, as they overcome pre-existing barriers, such as lack of access to finance, lack of networks and mentors and gendered priorities, among others. Without ensuring gender policies to counter these incremental negative effects, the authors face the risk of widening the gender gap.
Regarding previous systematic reviews of literature, this paper focusses on a specific challenge, how women entrepreneurs finance their activity, with a double vision: supply and demand of money.
Recent democratic trends in Mexico as well as the opening of new economic markets and free trade relationships have made the management of change a major issue in Mexico…
Recent democratic trends in Mexico as well as the opening of new economic markets and free trade relationships have made the management of change a major issue in Mexico. Most Mexican organizations need to transform their structures and processes, and to develop management and human resources in order to compete in the global marketplace. In addition, the need for change in Mexico includes such basic issues as uplifting whole classes of people out of poverty so that they can become productive members of society. We argue that change can be produced and facilitated through highly participative, egalitarian, and intensive large-group interventions. Even though existing cultural research might suggest that these approaches are inconsistent with the cultural orientation assumed to be predominant in most Mexican organizations, we offer two case studies employing whole-systems change approaches that provide evidence suggesting quite the opposite: large-scale and highly participative change interventions are very appropriate to facilitate change in Mexican society today.