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Kupferstein (2018) surveyed 460 respondents and found that 46 percent of respondents met the diagnostic threshold for posttraumatic stress disorder after exposure to…
Kupferstein (2018) surveyed 460 respondents and found that 46 percent of respondents met the diagnostic threshold for posttraumatic stress disorder after exposure to applied-behavior-analysis-based intervention. The purpose of this paper is to provide an evaluation a critical analysis of Kupferstein (2018) including the experimental methods and discussion of the results.
The authors evaluated the Kupferstein’s methodological rigor with respect to the use of hypothesis testing, use of indirect measures, selection of respondents, ambiguity in definitions, measurement system, and framing of the experimental question when conducting the correlational analysis in addition to Kupferstein’s analysis and discussion of the results.
Based upon the analysis, Kupferstein’s results should be viewed with extreme caution due to several methodological and conceptual flaws including, but not limited to, leading questions used within a non-validated survey, failure to confirm diagnosis, and incomplete description of interventions.
It is the authors’ hope that this analysis provides caregivers, clinicians, and service providers with a scientific lens which will useful in viewing the limitations and methodological flaws of Kupferstein.
Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) has emerged as a core concept in the field of entrepreneurship. Yet, there continue to be questions about the nature of EO and how best to…
Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) has emerged as a core concept in the field of entrepreneurship. Yet, there continue to be questions about the nature of EO and how best to conceptualize and measure it. This chapter makes the case that EO has grown beyond its roots as a firm-level unidimensional strategy construct and that a new multidimensional version of EO is needed to capture the diverse manifestations and venues for entrepreneurial activity that are now evident around the world – global entrepreneurial orientation (GEO). Building on the five-dimension multidimensional view of EO set forth when Lumpkin and Dess (1996) extended the work of Miller (1983) and Covin and Slevin (1989, 1991), the chapter offers an updated definition of EO and a fresh interpretation of why EO matters theoretically. Despite earnest efforts to reconcile the different approaches to EO, in order to move the study of EO and the theoretical conversation about it forward, we maintain that as a group of scholars and a field, we need to acknowledge that two different versions of EO have emerged. Given that, we consider original approaches to measuring EO, evaluate formative measurement models, consider multiple levels of analysis, call for renewed attention to EO configurations, and discuss whether there is a theory of EO.
WE have to announce with deep regret the death of Mr. I. Chalkley Gould, founder and director of the Library World since its establishment in 1898. Mr. Gould was a member of an old Essex family associated with Loughton and its neighbourhood, and was born in 1844, his father being the late George Gould, of Traps Hill House, Loughton. His connection with the firm of Marlborough, Gould & Co. and other stationery and printing concerns led him many years ago to give some attention to library and museum work, towards which he had always been attracted because of his personal interest in archaeology and literature. In this way he became associated with many museums, libraries and antiquarian societies, and identified himself more particularly with the movement for the preservation of ancient British earthworks. He was a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, vice‐president of the Essex Archaeological Society, the Essex Field Club, and the British Archaeological Association. Within recent years he acted as hon. secretary of the Committee for Recording Ancient Earthworks and Fortified Enclosures—a committee for the formation of which he was largely responsible and in the work of which he took a very deep interest. He was chairman of the Committee for the Exploration of the Red Hills of Essex—an important undertaking which is not yet completed. He also contributed several valuable papers to the Victoria History of Essex, and assisted the editor of that publication in revising the earthworks sections of other counties.
The most obvious symptom of the most obvious trend in the building of new libraries is the fact that, as yet, no spade has entered the ground of the site on Euston Road, London, upon which the new building for the British Library Reference Division has to be erected. Some twenty years of continued negotiation and discussion finally resulted in the choice of this site. The UK and much more of the world awaits with anticipation what could and should be the major building library of the twentieth century. The planning and design of a library building, however large or small, is, relatively speaking, a major operation, and deserves time, care and patience if the best results are to be produced.
[In view of the approaching Conference of the Library Association at Perth, the following note on the Leighton Library may not be inopportune. Dunblane is within an hour's railway journey from Perth and has a magnificent cathedral, founded in the twelfth century, which is well worthy of a visit.]
Integrating smallholders into high‐value global markets represents a unique opportunity to effect large‐scale poverty reduction in the countryside. The purpose of the…
Integrating smallholders into high‐value global markets represents a unique opportunity to effect large‐scale poverty reduction in the countryside. The purpose of the paper is to add empirical evidence to the discussion of how to best incorporate smallholders into the formal economy sustainably and responsibly.
The paper first builds a theoretical framework around global value chain theory and literature on smallholder inclusion and Kenya's growing horticultural sector. It then moves to explore a Kenyan smallholder‐based business model that incorporates 4,000 flower producers through an efficient and transparent intermediary. The analysis focuses on the importance of governance, upgrading and strong intermediaries for including smallholders in horticultural value chains.
In conclusion, this paper finds that although smallholder inclusion is both favorable and feasible based on theory, literature and case study analysis, it remains limited. It proposes embracing innovative smallholder‐based business models as a viable path out of poverty in countries with low labor costs, suitable climatic conditions and basic infrastructural capacities.
Limitations include a reliance on largely qualitative research methods due to gaps in available data.
Policy implications include the necessity of promoting agricultural development through investments in extension services, the creation of research and development centers and improvements in the rule of law.
This paper is unique in its focus on business models and global value chains as mechanisms through which to include smallholders into the global economy.
The next question to be considered is the capability of a library to issue a magazine. That many libraries will be unable to do so goes without saying. It is obvious that a library so cramped by want of funds as to be unable to keep its stock up to date or pay its librarian a respectable salary, is most decidedly incapable of issuing and supporting a magazine. It may be taken as a general rule that no library with an annual income of less than £1,000 should attempt it. Libraries having incomes below this amount can do much good work through the medium of the local press, but into this side of the matter it will be unnecessary to enter. Definite factors upon which to work are always valuable, and we find that 2 per cent. of the total income is the average amount expended by municipal Public Libraries publishing magazines of the required standard. A great part of this expenditure is, of course, recovered, but of that later. In working out this percentage, attention has been given to the book income and number of additions as well as to total income, and the result will be useful as giving an idea of likely expenditure without the need of laborious calculation.
Mr. Cutter commences his classic “Rules” with a statement of the objects some or all of which a catalogue is intended to compass. I have put these objects in the form of “wants,” confining them, it will be observed, to the catalogue considered merely as a finding list I may go to the catalogue, then, with any of the following half‐dozen wants:—