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Article
Publication date: 19 August 2021

Vane-Ing Tian, Felix Tang and Alan C.B. Tse

This paper aims to develop a culturally sensitive model based on the Chinese Confucian philosophy and normative ethics, which emphasizes the wholehearted social…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop a culturally sensitive model based on the Chinese Confucian philosophy and normative ethics, which emphasizes the wholehearted social responsibility of a Junzi (a noble man). Analogous to the popular marketing concept and strategic marketing orientation concepts, the authors define the Junzi concept as a business philosophy and Junzi orientation as the implementation of this philosophy. It proposes a Junzi orientation has a positive influence on companies' performances.

Design/methodology/approach

An 18-item scale comprising five dimensions: (1) Ren – benevolence, humaneness; (2) Yi – appropriateness, righteousness; (3) Li – propriety, harmonious differentiation; (4) Zhi – wisdom, knowledge management; and (5) Xin – integrity, trustworthiness, was developed to measure Junzi orientation. A total of 423 questionnaires were collected from different industries in Hong Kong, and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted.

Findings

The multidimensional behavioral construct of Junzi orientation scale was reliable and valid. The data supported that Junzi orientation has a positive influence on companies' performances.

Practical implications

The paper suggests that Junzi orientation could enhance a firm's competitive advantage.

Originality/value

This paper develops a culturally sensitive business orientation scale based on Chinese Confucianism and normative ethics.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2011

Po Keung Ip

This paper aims to examine whether and to what extent the practical wisdom contained in classical Confucianism can provide conceptual and ethical resources for ethical…

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2915

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine whether and to what extent the practical wisdom contained in classical Confucianism can provide conceptual and ethical resources for ethical leadership for Chinese companies in the twenty‐first century. The objectives of the paper are: to reconstruct the core elements of Confucianism; to account some major issues confronting corporate China; to identify the attributes of the Confucian ethical leadership through those of Junzi against such a backdrop; to identify some major challenges for Junzi leadership in today's business environment in China; and to consider some implications of this analysis for management development and management education.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper adopts a normative analysis.

Findings

A critical articulation of the concept of ethical leadership based on the Confucian notion of Junzi is presented, and the concept is examined against the context of problems confronting business in China. The challenges for Confucian ethical leadership are identified in the conclusion.

Research limitations/implications

The paper presents a critical reference for managers who adopt or intend to adopt Confucian ideas in management.

Social implications

The paper provides a critical reference for those in society who assume leadership positions to learn about Chinese ethical leadership.

Originality/value

Few works in the literature have made the connection between Confucian ethical leadership and the Chinese corporate context with a critical approach and rigorous analysis to help reveal the inherent challenges.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 30 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 31 March 2020

Stéphane Le Queux and Adrian T.H. Kuah

This paper provides insights as to how a Confucian-inspired Junzi style of leadership translates into initiatives toward human capital development in Singapore. After…

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258

Abstract

Purpose

This paper provides insights as to how a Confucian-inspired Junzi style of leadership translates into initiatives toward human capital development in Singapore. After reviewing tripartite governance in Singapore, we discuss the character of Confucian leadership: how does this value system inform the moral economy of the Singaporean corporatist model and inherently come to impact upon the conception and significance of human capital.

Design/methodology/approach

The case approach was employed using multiple sources of secondary data, supplemented by interviews with high-profile informants in Singapore. Multiple sources led to data triangulation in presenting a mutually consistent set of evidence. The paper also draws from a longitudinal observation of Singapore's industrial relations and human resource development (HRD) policies over the last 10 years since the Global Financial Crisis.

Findings

Organized along two thematic areas: governance and human capital development, this paper proposes and finds that governance in Singapore displays an institutionalized form of Junzi leadership that translates into policymaking toward human capital development.

Originality/value

This paper brings about an Asian perspective of Junzi leadership toward management and governance. The Confucian value system intrinsic to tripartite governance provides an original heuristic lens that helps shed a light on the significance of human capital development in Singapore.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 40 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 27 August 2019

Michelle Sitong Chen and Gabriel Eweje

The purpose of this paper is to examine empirically how managers establish ethical guanxi (interpersonal relationships) with their business partners to prevent potential…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine empirically how managers establish ethical guanxi (interpersonal relationships) with their business partners to prevent potential ethical incidences in Chinese and Western business contexts.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study is guided by a qualitative, abductive approach and draws on in-depth interviews with ten senior managers in five urban New Zealand organisations.

Findings

The results point out that guanxi (interpersonal relationships) purely working through renqing (reciprocity) is not sustainable, because it perpetuates a never-ending cycle of favours, once exchanging favours stopped or disappeared, then business relationships dwindled. To establish an ethical guanxi model, the authors found that xinyong (trust) is the foundation, and its enlargement stimulates lijie (empathy) that transfers pure business relationships to a genuine friendship which enhances ethical decision-making. They also posit that once managers are embodied with lijie, then they will have the virtue of ren to behave like junzi (ideal Confucian ethical person) whose business actions tend to be intrinsically guided by a sense of obligation to do something right that will work for diverse stakeholders’ interests, for the prosperity of organisations and society.

Practical implications

This study suggests that managers should take Confucian virtues of xinyong (trust) and lijie (empathy), because they will trigger ren (humanity) as an intrinsic value. In this way, it is more likely for them to become junzi (ideal Confucian ethical person) whose business actions are intrinsically guided by a sense of obligation to do something right that benefits various stakeholders, organisations and society.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the extant literature on preventing ethical incidents of guanxi (interpersonal relationships) by drawing a framework of ethical guanxi, which is built on Confucian virtues of xinyong (trust), lijie (empathy) and ren (humanity). Further, this paper strongly suggests that companies should educate their staff to become more humane to make moral decisions in daily management practice.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2011

Mike Thompson

The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent to which Chinese classical virtues act as a restraint on consumerist hedonic values and the associated priority on…

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2284

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent to which Chinese classical virtues act as a restraint on consumerist hedonic values and the associated priority on profit maximisation by managers.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on a literature review and adopts a reflective approach to the topic.

Findings

The paper considers how Chinese classical virtues are related to contemporary relational or indigenous values and how a social tension is created between these values and the hedonic values now present in Chinese urban society. Implications for management and management education are reviewed in the light of this tension.

Practical implications

The social unrest created by the privatisation of SOEs can be mitigated by the promotion of management education sensitised to the cultural norms and expectations of the Chinese people in relation to the role and responsibilities of managers. The Junzi (gentleman‐leader) archetype and the virtues of ren‐yi‐li are offered as exemplary features of a management seeking to balance social responsibility with profitability.

Originality/value

The paper highlights the social turbulence created by the advent of market economics in China and the concomitant rise of consumerism and the privatisation of state‐owned enterprises.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 30 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Shujie Liu, Decheng Zhao and Wei Xie

The purpose of this paper is to investigate Chinese teachers’ attitudes toward performance pay. Specifically, this study examined the extent to which Chinese teachers…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate Chinese teachers’ attitudes toward performance pay. Specifically, this study examined the extent to which Chinese teachers supported performance-pay programs. The study also examined the effects of these programs on teachers, particularly on their levels of collaboration, work motivation, and job stress.

Design/methodology/approach

This research was conducted in a northeastern city of China. Criteria sampling and maximum variation sampling techniques were used to select three schools, representing different characteristics of teacher performance pay (TPP) programs. In all, 150 questionnaires were administered to each of the three schools. The questionnaire contained three parts. Part 1 asked about respondents’ overall attitude toward pay-for-performance in general. Part 2 was composed of 20 closed-ended items asking respondents to rate their levels of agreement with various aspects of implementation of performance pay. Part 3 of the questionnaire comprised open-ended items.

Findings

Approximately 48.5 percent of the teachers supported the teacher-performance-pay programs. This indicated a low support of Chinese teachers in comparison to that in some countries. Regarding how teachers’ attitudes toward performance pay are related to teacher characteristics (e.g. teaching experience, professional ranking), the ANOVAs results showed no significant differences in any of the factors. This quantitative result was different from the qualitative result of this study (e.g. veteran teachers complained about the implementation of performance pay). In spite of the differences between quantitative and qualitative findings, some findings from the current study are consistent with those found in western countries.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation of this study was the small sample size for quantitative analyses. Future research should consider a larger sample size to conduct more advanced statistical analyses such as structural equation modeling to examine further the relations among, for example, how much the incentive pay should be, and what proportion of teachers should receive it, the level of teacher stress, their work enthusiasm, and peer relationships. Another limitation of this study was that the qualitative data were collected through open-ended questions of the questionnaire. Future research should interview teachers and principals to obtain richer voices from the teachers.

Originality/value

Very few articles published in Chinese journals surveyed the implementation of TPP. In addition, these few articles were not well-designed from an empirical sense. So far research of teacher opinions about performance pay was a missing area in China’s educational discourse. The present study provides information to non-Chinese readers who are interested in Chinese teachers’ attitudes toward TPP. It is hoped the present study adds knowledge to the literature of TPP from the perspective of Chinese teachers.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 30 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Abstract

Details

Breaking the Zero-Sum Game
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-186-7

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2012

Mary FitzPatrick, Janet Davey and Lijuan Dai

Despite the competitive internationalization of higher education, international students' responses to dissatisfaction (consumer complaining behavior or CCB) are not well…

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1577

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the competitive internationalization of higher education, international students' responses to dissatisfaction (consumer complaining behavior or CCB) are not well understood in New Zealand. While studies show that many factors, including culture, influence CCB, the None‐Action mode in particular has been largely overlooked by researchers. The purpose of this paper is to examine Chinese student's CCB.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employed a qualitative exploratory focus group design examining Chinese students' CCB. Data were analyzed in two stages. First, data were coded into various CCB modes. Next, data relating to the specific mode of None‐Action were thematically analyzed. Five key themes for None‐Action were revealed: Futility, Inadequate Information, Fear of Consequences, Complexity, and Internalization.

Findings

This exploratory research found a high level of None‐Action responses. It was apparent that culture was highly influential in participants' CCB responses and that these None‐Action responses had an affective dimension.

Research limitations/implications

Understanding None‐Action responses to dissatisfaction among international students in higher education is critical if universities are to avoid adverse funding consequences. There are cultural and personal implications for students and strategic implications for higher education institutions in understanding Chinese students' Non‐Action. The exploratory nature of the research means that it is designed to stimulate thought and debate on how to expand the body of knowledge on this mode of CCB.

Originality/value

The research highlights the importance to higher education institutions of understanding the cultural and service‐specific explanations for Non‐Action as a response to student‐consumer dissatisfaction.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2014

Alex Mak, Lenis Cheung, Amy Mak and Loretta Leung

The purpose of this paper is to provide a concise introduction of sustainability in human resource management (HRM) from the western perspective. With a review of…

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1180

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a concise introduction of sustainability in human resource management (HRM) from the western perspective. With a review of Confucian thinking, it argues that the application of sustainability in HRM is more effective and efficient under the influence of Confucian values. Therefore, Chinese companies are likely ready to embrace the concept of sustainability and implement sustainable people management practices.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is mainly theoretical in perspective. It also draws on semi-structured interview data derived from a study conducted in companies that operated in two cities in China: Guangzhou and Beijing to support the discussion of synergies between Confucian values and the western concept of sustainability in HRM.

Findings

In the interviews, it was evident that the interviewees were adhered to Confucian values, although they did not make the connection explicit. The interview data also showed how Confucian values (e.g. Ren, Yi, Li) affect Chinese management of human resources.

Research limitations/implications

The number of interviewees involved was not sufficient to allow a conclusive comparison between groups. Further research is needed to develop comparisons.

Practical implications

The paper suggests a favourable application of Confucian values in sustainable people management practices.

Originality/value

The interview data provide insight into how Confucian values lend support to sustainability in HRM.

Details

Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-4323

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 November 2020

Bo Yang, Pingping Fu, ‘Alim J. Beveridge and Qing Qu

Through three case studies, the authors aim to examine how Confucian humanistic philosophy can be applied to leadership practices and show how it is possible to practice…

Abstract

Purpose

Through three case studies, the authors aim to examine how Confucian humanistic philosophy can be applied to leadership practices and show how it is possible to practice humanistic leadership in the Chinese context.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use case studies of three exemplary humanistic leaders and the companies they lead to describe their leadership practices and influence on others and their companies.

Findings

The authors identify three common elements that connect their observations to an emerging scholarly conceptualization of humanistic leadership and develop a framework of Confucian humanistic leadership consisting of five attributes. The cases the authors studied suggest that the five attributes should be understood as being mutually reinforcing and acting in concert, rather than each acting independently of the others. The authors found that there is inherent consistency and connection between the core values of Confucianism and humanistic leadership.

Originality/value

The research contributes to the leadership literature, specifically the emerging literature on humanistic leadership, by introducing a framework for Confucian humanistic leadership. While much of the extant literature on humanistic leadership has been conceptual, the study shows how it is possible to practice humanistic leadership in the Chinese context by drawing on the foundation provided by Confucian humanistic philosophy. The findings also contribute to humanistic leadership research by providing important insights into specific capabilities that can help put the principles of humanistic leadership into practice, but that have not been considered to date.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

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