Combined free and forced laminar air convective heat transfer from avertical composite plate with isolated discontinuous surface heating elementshas been studied…
Combined free and forced laminar air convective heat transfer from a vertical composite plate with isolated discontinuous surface heating elements has been studied numerically and experimentally. The problem has been simplified by neglecting heat conduction in unheated elements of the plate to accomplish a better understanding of the complicated combined/complicated convection problem. In this study, it is most important in explaining the heat transfer behaviour to clarify the interactions between buoyancy and inertia forces in the convective field and also the coupling effects of unheated elements upon the combined flow fields. Therefore, the temperature distributions of the wall surface and local Nusselt number, obtained by numerical calculations and experiments, have been discussed based on the various parameters associated with the present convection problem, i.e., Grashof number GrL, Reynolds number ReL, geometry factor D/L and stage number N. Heat transfer characteristics Nut/Re1/2L of this combined and coupled convection of air are presented as a function of a generalized coupling dimensionless number GrL/Re2L, and stage number N for certain values of the geometry factor of D/L.
Over the past ten years about 200 computer‐controlled automatic sorting machines have been installed in Japan. The system described in this article, in use in a retail…
Over the past ten years about 200 computer‐controlled automatic sorting machines have been installed in Japan. The system described in this article, in use in a retail distribution centre, incorporates automatic ultrasonic volume measurement for calculation of freight charges, voice input, laser scanning and other sensing aids. Part of the system was described in this magazine in January 1981 — this article brings the story up to date.
One of Japan's largest distribution centres has introduced an automatic sorting system using voice input. The workforce has been halved.
A two‐dimensional numerical study was carried out to investigate laminar forced‐convection heat transfer characteristics of air flow in a two parallel plate channel with…
A two‐dimensional numerical study was carried out to investigate laminar forced‐convection heat transfer characteristics of air flow in a two parallel plate channel with offset plates and heated by a radiation heat flux. The SIMPLE method was used for the numerical prediction of the flow and thermal fields. The flow field temperature boundary conditions were obtained by applying the energy balance equation to boundary elements. The ray tracing technique was used to obtain the net absorbed radiation fractions in the boundary elements. The numerical results were validated with measured temperature values and experimentally calculated values of local Nusselt number (Nux), and a reasonable agreement was shown. Then the numerical simulation was used to study effects of design parameters on the convective heat transfer coefficient. It was found that in Re numbers from 650 to 2,550, the optimum spacing of offset plates relative to the nearest channel wall was around one third of the channel height. Also, the optimum offset plates’ numbers can be calculated based on one offset plate length being equal to one and a half times the channel hydraulic diameter. A correlation of average Nusselt number between the flowing air and the offset plates was obtained as follows; —Nu = 1.81 Re 0.352Pr1/3(Dh/l)1/2.
Combined forced and free laminar convective heat transfer on a vertical plate with a backward‐facing step has been studied numerically and experimentally, considering the…
Combined forced and free laminar convective heat transfer on a vertical plate with a backward‐facing step has been studied numerically and experimentally, considering the effects of the interaction between the buoyancy and inertia forces which play a significant role in this phenomenon with the step‐geometry factor of d/L. The convective heat transfer behavior in connection with the reattachment and recirculation flows appearing in the step region has been investigated based on the numerical calculations and Mach‐Zehnder interferometer measurement under the wide range of the thermal condition. The behaviors of local Nusselt number NuL, velocity and temperature boundary layers and streamline fields in the recirculating region have been discussed for the various parameters of Grashof number GrL, Reynolds number ReL and the geometry factor d/L. The characteristic behavior of this convection heat transfer, including the vortex flow mode in the recirculating region and the unstable fluctuating mode near the reattaching point appearing at the specific condition, has been clarified numerically and experimentally by introducing the generalized coupling parameter GrL/ReL2 and geometry factor d/L.
To explore and examine cultural differences in the consumer attitudes toward social media.
The influence of culture toward the consumer attitudes in social media may be less salient compared with other consumer behaviors.
This study is exploratory in nature.
To encourage managers to revisit the issue of globalization versus localization, particularly in the domain of social media.
Originality/value of paper
This study is one of the first attempts in exploring cultural differences in the consumer behavior of social media.
The origins of corporate social responsibility (CSR) have been widely attributed to the work of scholars, and business managers as well, in North America and Western…
The origins of corporate social responsibility (CSR) have been widely attributed to the work of scholars, and business managers as well, in North America and Western Europe. Inevitably, however, as the economic interaction of individual firms and entire nations has grown over the past several decades — call it globalization — so too has the concept and the practice of CSR spread throughout the world. It is certainly time to explore how CSR is being incorporated into the practice of business management in other regions and other countries. Therefore, in this chapter we will focus on Asia: specifically on Japan, South Korea, India, and China. It is interesting for academicians to understand how CSR is being absorbed and adapted into the business cultures of these four countries. Perhaps of even greater importance, it is vital that business managers know what to expect about the interaction between business and society as well as the government as their commercial activities grow in this burgeoning part of the world.
For each of these four countries, we will provide an overview of the extent to which CSR has become a part of the academic community and also how it is being practiced and incorporated in everyday management affairs. We will see that there are very significant differences among these countries which lead to the natural question: why? To answer this question, we will use an eight-part analytical framework developed specifically for this purpose. We will look at the history, the dominant religious beliefs, the relevant social customs, the geography, the political structures, the level of economic development, civil society institutions, and the “safety net” of each country. As a result of this analysis, we believe, academicians can learn how CSR is absorbed and spread into commercial affairs, and managers can profit from learning more about what to expect when doing business in this increasingly important region.
The authors develop a framework to build an early warning mechanism in detecting financial deterioration of Chinese companies. Many studies in the financial distress and bankruptcy prediction literature rarely do they examine the impact of pre-processing financial indicators on the prediction performance. The purpose of this paper is to address this shortcoming.
The proposed framework is evaluated by using both original and discretized data, and a least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) selection technique for choosing an appropriate subset of financial ratios for improved predictive performance. The financial ratios are then analyzed by five different data mining techniques. Managerial insights, using data from Chinese companies, are revealed by the methodology employed.
The prediction accuracy increases after we discretized the continuous variables of financial ratios. A better prediction performance can be achieved by including fewer, but relatively more significant variables. Random forest has the highest overall performance following closely by SVM and neural network.
The contribution of this study is fourfold. First, the authors add to the literature on defaults by showing variable discretization to be an essential pre-processing step to improve the prediction performance for classification problems. Second, the authors demonstrate that machine learning approaches can achieve better performance than traditional statistical methods in classification tasks. Third, the authors provide the evidence for the adoption of C5.0 over other methods because rules generated with C5.0 provide managerial insights for managers. Finally, the authors demonstrate the effectiveness of the LASSO technique for identifying the most important financial ratios from each category, enabling one to build better predictive models.
For more than 20 years, genome editing has been one of the numerous technologies developed for the study and manipulation of the genome. However, since the relatively recent appearance of the so-called precision approaches, and especially through the “CRISPR revolution,” the modification of the genome of any living beings on our planet has become possible, despite recent results showing some unexpected and undesirable effects of this technology. The objective of this chapter is to illustrate how a mobilization of the scientific community through the setting-up of an association should allow a responsible and ethical use of these technologies with considerable impacts for our society.
The purpose of this study is to design a spherical sensor which can detect the surge from various directions to lay the foundation of the research of surge.
This paper designed a spherical sensor to detect the impact force generated by the surge. To realize the depth and stability control of the shallow underwater vehicles, it is necessary to do research and analysis on the surge in shallow waters. The spherical sensor with novel structure was skillfully composed of 24 cantilever beam pressure-type strain sensors. It is powerful to detect the surge from various directions simultaneously.
It is proved that the spherical sensor can accurately collect the surge data from multiple directions through experiments, which laid the foundation of the anti-surge study.
Surge is not a new topic. But there is no effective tool to detect surge. The research of this paper is an attempt to provide an available tool to analyze surge. The research limitation is that the pool where the spherical sensor is installed is a little small. In the future, a bigger pool can be used.
A deep and comprehensive analysis of surge can be conducted according to the surge data detected by the spherical sensor to achieve the essential features of surge. This lays the foundation for the accurate control of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs), especially fixed depth and stability control.
As the control accuracy of AUVs increases, the AUVs can perform much more difficult tasks such as port monitoring, underwater salvaging, underwater pipeline maintenance and so on. These can be applied in commercial applications or in the national defense of many countries.
A novel spherical sensor using 24 cantilever beam pressure-type strain sensors to detect the surge was designed. The spherical sensor was installed in the physical surge simulator to collect surge data and conduct an analysis of the collected data.