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This paper reports on an exploratory study into the extent of diversity management initiatives in organizations in one Canadian city. Diversity management originated in…
This paper reports on an exploratory study into the extent of diversity management initiatives in organizations in one Canadian city. Diversity management originated in the USA where it is reportedly being embraced by many organizations and where it has become the basis of a large consulting business. Although a diverse workforce and workplace diversity management are often argued to be critical to organizational competitiveness, little is known about how Canadian organizations are reacting.
In considering critical areas of human resource development, and upon reviewing the literature on women in management, it became obvious that there was a need for a Management Development program that is targeted specifically to women at senior levels of management. The record of course providers in attracting women to participate in existing mixed Executive Development Programs has not been very good, poorer indeed than the proportion of senior women in organizations, which by itself is not at an acceptable level. The research suggests that women generally are less likely to actively seek positions of high profile leadership due to historical social stereotypes of women and the lack of obvious women executive models (Arkkelin, & Simons, 1985; Baril, Elbert, Maher‐Potter, & Reavy, 1989). They are unable and unwilling to absent themselves from families and careers to the same extent as males in our society. Indeed, in the case of women with children, there are very strong norms against women leaving family and children to persue their own professional development (Riger, & Galligan, 1980). Quite the opposite norm exists for males with children who are obviously rewarded in our society for pursuing training and development opportunities which can enhance their career development (Powell, 1988). Thus, the residential and extended time components of current Executive Development Programs are often inconvenient and unsuitable for the majority of women who aspire to or have achieved senior level positions.
Recently, more and more North American women have been choosing to pursue careers in management and the professions. The invasion of women into these once exclusively…
Recently, more and more North American women have been choosing to pursue careers in management and the professions. The invasion of women into these once exclusively masculine domains has been accompanied by a host of problems, many of which were unanticipated. In the articles presented here we examine the nature of these problems and provide some suggestions about what can be done to help resolve them.
The present study consists of managers and professionals in 26 countries including seven from Central and Eastern Europe. The purpose of this paper is to investigate…
The present study consists of managers and professionals in 26 countries including seven from Central and Eastern Europe. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether culture dimensions predict country differences in the relationship between gender and organizational commitment. The study integrated theories of social learning, role adjustment and exchange that link commitment to organizational roles to explain such differences in gender effects. Findings indicate that an alternative modernities perspective on theories of gender and commitment is better warranted than is a traditional modernities perspective.
This study examined the relationship between gender and organizational commitment using primary data collected in 26 counties. The cross-level moderating effects of individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, power distance and restraint vs indulgence was examined using hierarchical linear modeling.
Organizational commitment is found to be higher among men than women in four countries (Australia, China, Hungary, Jamaica) and higher among women than men in two countries (Bulgaria and Romania). Results shows that large power distance, uncertainty avoidance, femininity (social goal emphasis) and restraint (vs indulgence) predict an association between being female and commitment. These all suggest limitations to the traditional modernity-based understanding of gender and the workplace.
This study is unique based on the three theories it integrates and because it tests the proposed hypothesis using a multi-level nested research design. Moreover, the results suggest a tension between an alternative modernities perspective on top-down governmental effects on commitment through exchange and bottom-up personal effects on commitment through social learning with role adjustment in an intermediate position.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature and influence of artefacts in market-oriented firms.
Document analysis, direct observation and 14 key informant interviews were undertaken in 6 case study of companies.
The research investigated the nature and influence of four categories of artefacts in market-oriented firms, specifically, stories, arrangements, rituals and language. The four categories of artefacts were found to embody, reinforce, create and compliment the values, norms and behaviours of a market-oriented culture. Market-oriented artefacts are thus core to a market-oriented culture and in developing a market orientation.
The four categories of artefact, namely, stories, arrangements, rituals and language embody a market-oriented culture; these artefacts are necessary to implement market-oriented behaviours. Artefacts play a significant cultural and behavioural part in creating a market-oriented culture.
To be a market-oriented firm means implementing a market-oriented culture. This paper requires managers to assess the degree to which they have developed and used market-oriented artefacts in the establishment and strengthening of a market-oriented culture.
This paper addresses the limited understanding of market-oriented artefacts as an element of a market-oriented culture.