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The Broad Autism Phenotype
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-657-7

Book part
Publication date: 28 January 2011

Julie A. Deisinger

Child psychiatrist Leo Kanner (pronounced “Konner;” Feinstein, 2010, p. 19) published a ground-breaking paper in 1943 that introduced the world to the present-day concept…

Abstract

Child psychiatrist Leo Kanner (pronounced “Konner;” Feinstein, 2010, p. 19) published a ground-breaking paper in 1943 that introduced the world to the present-day concept of autism (Fombonne, 2003; Goldstein & Ozonoff, 2009; Roth, 2010). Prior to Kanner, however, several physicians described the condition of autism without identifying it as such. A textbook published in 1809, titled Observations on Madness and Melancholy, contained a description of a boy whose symptoms fit the modern definition of autism (Feinstein, 2010; Vaillant, 1962). The book's author, Dr. John Haslam, wrote about a 5-year-old male who was admitted to the Bethlem Asylum in 1799 with a medical history that included a case of measles when he was 1 year old. The boy's mother claimed that at age 2 years, her son became harder to control. She also indicated that he did not begin to walk until he was 2½ years of age and did not talk until he was 4 years old. Once hospitalized, the boy cried only briefly upon separation from his mother and was “constantly in action” (Vaillant, 1962, p. 376), suggesting that he was hyperactive. Hyperactivity is a characteristic commonly found in children with ASDs (APA, 2000; Wicks-Nelson & Israel, 2009). Although this child watched other boys at play in the hospital, he never joined them and played intently with toy soldiers by himself. The boy could not learn to read and always referred to himself in the third person (Vaillant, 1962). Grammatical errors in speech can be observed among individuals with ASDs (Roth, 2010; Wicks-Nelson & Israel, 2009).

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History of Special Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-629-5

Book part
Publication date: 8 November 2001

Julie A. Deisinger

Because language deficits are often present among individuals with pervasive developmental disorders, evaluation of language abilities is an essential part of a

Abstract

Because language deficits are often present among individuals with pervasive developmental disorders, evaluation of language abilities is an essential part of a comprehensive assessment. According to Wetherby, Prizant, and Schuler (2000), assessment of language skills for persons with autistic spectrum disorders must focus on three broad areas of concern: linguistics, social and emotional communication, and language-related cognitive functions. Linguistic evaluation includes assessment of both expressive and receptive language. Examination of social and emotional communication must assess reciprocity of social interaction, understanding and expression of emotion, and regulatory strategies to manage emotional arousal. Finally, evaluation of language-related cognitive domains must include an assessment of the use of symbolic representations and imitation (Wetherby et al.).

Details

Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Educational and Clinical Interventions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-818-7

Book part
Publication date: 26 January 2010

Julie A. Deisinger

Students with special needs include children with impaired attention, disruptive behavior, learning disabilities, and developmental disorders, among many other conditions…

Abstract

Students with special needs include children with impaired attention, disruptive behavior, learning disabilities, and developmental disorders, among many other conditions. When a child has been diagnosed with such a disorder, his or her parents may seek treatment that could assist the child to be more academically and socially successful. Numerous interventions exist for the treatment of childhood disorders; however, these treatment methods differ in the types and amounts of evidence supporting their usefulness and effectiveness (Lilienfeld, 2005).

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Current Issues and Trends in Special Education: Identification, Assessment and Instruction
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-669-0

Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2008

Julie A. Deisinger

The heritability of ASDs reportedly exceeds 90% (Halgin & Whitbourne, 2007; Rutter, 2005), indicating that genetic endowment strongly influences the etiology of these…

Abstract

The heritability of ASDs reportedly exceeds 90% (Halgin & Whitbourne, 2007; Rutter, 2005), indicating that genetic endowment strongly influences the etiology of these disorders (Halgin & Whitbourne, 2007). Research to date has suggested chromosomes 2, 7, and 15 as possible sites for genetic abnormalities associated with ASDs (Filipek et al., 1999; Halgin & Whitbourne, 2007; Muhle, Trentacoste, & Rapin, 2004; Yonan et al., 2003). However, the genetics of autism is complex and is not yet fully known (Chuthapisith, Ruangdaraganon, Sombuntham, & Roongpraiwan, 2007; Goldberg et al., 2005; Muhle et al., 2004; Ozonoff, South, & Provencal, 2005; Rutter, 2005; Szatmari, Zwaigenbaum, & Bryson, 2004).

Details

Autism and Developmental Disabilities: Current Practices and Issues
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-357-6

Book part
Publication date: 9 November 2006

Julie A. Deisinger

Although less than 1% of violent student deaths take place in schools, incidents such as the shootings that took place at Columbine High School in 1999 have fueled a

Abstract

Although less than 1% of violent student deaths take place in schools, incidents such as the shootings that took place at Columbine High School in 1999 have fueled a general impression that schools are unsafe (Hall & Marsh, 2003; Osher & Quinn, 2003). Media reports about bomb threats, bullying episodes, and disruptive classroom behaviors have further contributed to a widespread belief that schools are not as safe as they should be (Osher & Quinn, 2003; Chicago Tribune Online Edition, 2006).

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Current Perspectives in Special Education Administration
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-438-6

Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2008

Julie A. Deisinger

According to current estimates, the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) ranges from 1 in 500 children to 1 in 150 children (Centers for Disease Control and

Abstract

According to current estimates, the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) ranges from 1 in 500 children to 1 in 150 children (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/CDC, 2007; Desmon, 2007). In the past such disorders usually were not identified until a child was school-aged, but these disorders are now more likely to be diagnosed in affected individuals during the preschool years (McConachie, Le Couteur, & Honey, 2005; Rutter, 2006). For example, Mandell, Novak, and Zubritsky (2005) surveyed over 900 caregivers of children with ASDs and learned that on an average, children with autistic disorder were diagnosed at 3.1 years of age. These researchers also reported that children who exhibited such characteristics as severe language impairment, toe walking, hand flapping, and sustained unusual play behaviors were diagnosed earlier than children without these features.

Details

Autism and Developmental Disabilities: Current Practices and Issues
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-357-6

Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Julie A. Deisinger

Four types of calculations are currently being used to identify discrepancies between intellectual ability and achievement. These include deviation from grade level…

Abstract

Four types of calculations are currently being used to identify discrepancies between intellectual ability and achievement. These include deviation from grade level, expectancy formulas, simple standard score differences, and regression-based differences (Fletcher et al., 1994; Gresham, 2001; Sattler, 1992; Van den Broeck, 2002).

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Current Perspectives on Learning Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-287-0

Book part
Publication date: 26 November 2019

Abstract

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Special Education Transition Services for Students with Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-977-4

Book part
Publication date: 11 August 2021

Abstract

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Traditional and Innovative Assessment Techniques for Students with Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-890-1

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