In this article, we focus on the practices which have helped overcome a range of specific barriers to participation in adult and community education, and in the process…
In this article, we focus on the practices which have helped overcome a range of specific barriers to participation in adult and community education, and in the process have contributed to cohesion of the group involved and the community in which the program operates. In building and promoting social cohesion we can view learning as a personal journey, and search for meaning as well as a “map that can be used to guide learners along a learning route” (McGivney, 1999, p. 11). As claimed by Chapman and Aspin (2001), lifelong learning for social cohesion will become a reality if we show a readiness to invest in people.
The implementation of the policy of devolution in the government school system of Victoria, Australia, has significantly enhanced the opportunities for teachers to become…
The implementation of the policy of devolution in the government school system of Victoria, Australia, has significantly enhanced the opportunities for teachers to become involved in the decision making of schools. This article reports on a study designed to investigate the factors associated with involvement. Analysis of the data found teacher involvement in the decision making of schools to be associated with: gender; seniority and organizational responsibility; age and teaching experience; affiliation with the teachers association; the influence of the principal; the individual's sense of personal, political and professional efficacy; the individual's confidence and trust in the organization and its administration; the conflicting demands, anxiety and pressure of time; and the perceived effects of participation on curriculum and teaching practice.
This paper reports on the design of an attitude scale to be used in studies investigating relationships between principals and members of school councils in Victoria. The…
This paper reports on the design of an attitude scale to be used in studies investigating relationships between principals and members of school councils in Victoria. The scale, which is composed of twenty‐four items, measures attitudes toward principal domination of council. The Likert method of scale construction was used. Item analysis demonstrated that all items discriminated between high and low scorers (Edwards t≥3.17). Internal consistency, estimated by using Kuder Richardson and Cronback's Alpha, yielded a coefficient of .80705. The corrected split‐half reliability based on the responses of 297 principals and council members was .72835. Test‐retest reliability was .69314.
This paper aims to argue that, contrary to popular thinking, technological disasters are potentially predictable, and therefore amenable to risk assessment and mitigation…
This paper aims to argue that, contrary to popular thinking, technological disasters are potentially predictable, and therefore amenable to risk assessment and mitigation. What is lacking at present is a more comprehensive understanding of the hazards, embedded in complex socio‐technical systems, which lead to such disasters.
The paper discusses several factors that contribute to hazard formation and development, including the interaction of human and mechanical components, ambiguity, evolutionary changes, innovation and poor communication in organisational systems. Two case studies of recent disasters in Australia are presented to provide illustrations of the complexity in socio‐technical systems and the hazards and risks that they harbour.
The paper finds that to progress, we need two things: better conceptual models and frameworks that reveal complexity and make systems more transparent, and more satisfactory approaches to risk management.
The paper concludes with some suggestions as to how the risks might be better understood and managed proactively.
Discusses the concept of “school effectiveness” and thetheories behind the research reported in the literature – which isreviewed. Both the so‐called scientific approach…
Discusses the concept of “school effectiveness” and the theories behind the research reported in the literature – which is reviewed. Both the so‐called scientific approach and the multi‐paradigmatic approach have limitations; an “evolutionary epistemology” is preferred.
This article sets out to revisit Janis' groupthink theory that holds that, when anxiety is present for a decision‐making group, premature concurrence seeking emerges…
This article sets out to revisit Janis' groupthink theory that holds that, when anxiety is present for a decision‐making group, premature concurrence seeking emerges unless other mitigating factors are present. Research from selected segments of the decision making literature are introduced to explain the underlying causes of concurrence seeking. The result is an elaboration of the theory based on a synthesis of older and newer ideas, supporting Janis' core thesis that anxiety triggers this phenomenon.
The paper is conceptual and draws on literature addressing the impact of emotions on decision‐making behaviour; human responses to anxiety, including psychological defence modes and mechanisms; and groupthink research and writing.
The theoretical elaboration of the groupthink model centres on the idea that anxiety associated with a decision task triggers implicit motivations of anxiety reduction in groups, which are enacted through the activation of common defence mechanisms, thus resulting in the symptoms of defective decision making. A table that recasts the symptoms of groupthink as common defence mechanisms is provided.
Suggestions are made for broadening the conceptual base of the groupthink model, including consideration of the research on negative and positive emotions.
The article distinguishes between poor decision making due to groupthink and other causes. Remedies for the emergence of groupthink include better approaches to recognising and surfacing anxiety and other negative emotions, so they can be managed constructively. Such remedies complement more conventional methods of improving group decision making.
The article focuses on the underlying causes of premature concurrence seeking, an aspect of the groupthink model that is not well understood. It builds on Janis' explanation of anxiety as the main cause, by elaborating the linkages between the presence of anxiety, the symptoms of groupthink and the signs of defective decision making. In this, the article draws on research into the effects of negative emotions on decision‐making behaviour and related theories. It synthesises several research streams to provide a more comprehensive explanation of concurrence seeking.
The current challenges facing nonprofit organizations in developed countries are clarification of mission and values, strengthening the structure and improving systems of…
The current challenges facing nonprofit organizations in developed countries are clarification of mission and values, strengthening the structure and improving systems of accountability. Increasingly, senior executives are engaging external process consultants to assist with the process of change in these areas. The paper reports on research into the activities and skills of consultants to determine whether or not the requirements of nonprofit organizations differ from those of business sector organizations. Over 50 experienced consultants participating in a process‐oriented change program were surveyed for their views. Of the 29 who responded, most agreed that there were differences between the sectors. They nominated 57 activities they were “more likely to be involved in” and 72 skills they were “more likely to draw on” in nonprofit organizations. The possible reasons for intersectoral differences are discussed. The paper concludes with implications for consultancy practice and for nonprofit organizations employing process consultants.
Discusses the main advances in epistemological perspectives andmeta‐theoretical frameworks within which recent research and academicwork in the field of educational…
Discusses the main advances in epistemological perspectives and meta‐theoretical frameworks within which recent research and academic work in the field of educational administration in Australia has been articulated and developed. Arising from work currently undertaken by the OECD and considerations of developments in educational policy and administration throughout Australia, puts forward a proposal for a new set of agenda for research and professional advancement in the field.