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Article
Publication date: 14 November 2016

Juan M. Madera, Mary Dawson and Priyanko Guchait

The purpose of this paper was to develop and test a model examining how hotel managers’ psychological diversity climate affects job satisfaction, the moderating effect of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to develop and test a model examining how hotel managers’ psychological diversity climate affects job satisfaction, the moderating effect of racioethnic minority status and the mediating role of organizational justice.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of frontline managers from 164 individual hotel properties was used. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was used to examine the underlying mechanism through which psychological diversity climate impacts job satisfaction.

Findings

The results found support for the mediating effect of organizational justice between managers’ psychological diversity climate and job satisfaction. Racioethnic identity moderated the relationship between psychological diversity climate and organizational justice, thereby supporting the mediated-moderated model proposed in the current research.

Practical implications

The findings show the importance of improving employee perceptions of diversity climate and organizational justice, particularly through recruitment practices, incorporating diversity into the corporate values, adopting formal diversity management practices and educating managers about the importance of diversity through formal training methods.

Originality/value

Little research has examined the underlying mechanisms that explain why psychological diversity climate affects organizational attitudes. Even less research has examined whether the link between a perceived positive diversity climate and job satisfaction is stronger for racioethnic minorities. These results provide meaningful insights for researchers because the hospitality industry is one of the largest employers of racioethnic minorities and immigrant employees.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 28 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2011

Juan M. Madera and Camille E. Kapoor

Abstract

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2011

Camille Kapoor and Juan M. Madera

The purpose of this paper is to present industry perspectives on diversity research for the hospitality industry. This piece transcribes a panel discussion at the 2010…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present industry perspectives on diversity research for the hospitality industry. This piece transcribes a panel discussion at the 2010 Hospitality Industry Diversity Institute Conference.

Design/methodology/approach

The panel discussion created dialogue between industry professionals and academic researchers with the goal of creating research on a variety of diversity topics that are meaningful to the hospitality industry. The variety of topics include visible tattoos in the workplace, multicultural travelers, attracting minority employees to the hospitality industry, and a general discussion of various issues central to the industry.

Findings

As a result of this discussion, researchers have learned that there are potential research opportunities regarding many of the topics presented in the discussion panel. Specifically, there is an interest in research regarding consumer perceptions of visible tattoos on employees; understanding what motivates and influences multicultural travelers in their travel decisions; how to attract minorities to choose the hospitality industry as a career; and general comments and concerns about research such as the need to make findings “relevant and applicable.” “We need industry support, especially gaining access and collecting data” (Dr Fevzi Okumus), and feedback should be stressed to make sure “the right thing is happening from a customer's perspective” (Tom Cusimano).

Research limitations/implications

Further research is needed in the areas of how tattoos can influence the customer's experience, what is driving the multicultural traveler's decisions, what career paths are minorities choosing, and how the hospitality industry may successfully attract minorities to make their career in the field.

Originality/value

The paper provides original material from industry professionals and academic researchers. This piece is valuable for members of both the industry and academic community to help each better understand the needs of one another, including the need for collaboration from organizations in research from the academic community, and the need for research from the industry as well as practical application of results.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2011

Mary Dawson, Juan M. Madera and Jack A. Neal

One out of four foodservice employees speaks a foreign language at home. Furthermore, 37 percent of those employees speak limited English. Given this, hospitality managers…

Abstract

Purpose

One out of four foodservice employees speaks a foreign language at home. Furthermore, 37 percent of those employees speak limited English. Given this, hospitality managers must find ways to effectively communicate with their employees. This paper seeks to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology employed a perspective‐taking manipulation. Participants were placed in the role of an individual that does not speak the native language that is used in the workplace. Groups were measured on performance, quality, and accuracy. Groups were video‐taped to measure frequency of non‐verbal behaviors. Participants were surveyed to measure their levels of positivity.

Findings

The results of this study identified effective non‐verbal communication strategies for managers (combination of gestures, demonstrating, and pointing). When the leader used these strategies, the groups were able to complete the recipes faster. Managers who spoke another language expressed a more positive behavior towards the group. The group also expressed more positive behaviors towards each other when they had a second language leader.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation is that data were collected from students and the methodology simulated an environment of limited language proficiency. Although this method has been shown to be effective, the true experiences of what non‐English speaking workers might face include more complex processes.

Practical implications

This research suggests that non‐verbal tools are effective when communication barriers exist. Managers who are multiculturally competent are more efficient in leading employees. Positive feedback must be given even if it is non‐verbal.

Originality/value

This research offers valuable strategies for hospitality managers to communicate with those employees who speak limited English.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 January 2021

Michelle Russen, Mary Dawson and Juan M. Madera

The purpose of this study is to examine hotel managers’ perspectives on the promotion process of hotel employees based on the promoted employee’s gender, their perceived…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine hotel managers’ perspectives on the promotion process of hotel employees based on the promoted employee’s gender, their perceived organizational justice and perceived gender discrimination against women. The moderating role of anti-male bias beliefs in the promotion process was examined.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted an experimental design (female vs male promoted) with a sample of 87 hotel managers. Data were analyzed using mediation and moderated mediation analyses.

Findings

The results indicated procedural and distributed justice mediates the effect of gender of the promoted employee on perceived gender discrimination against women. It was found that perceptions of anti-male bias moderate the relationship between gender of the promoted employee and distributed justice, demonstrating higher levels of perceived fairness within the organization when a female is promoted, especially when low levels of anti-male bias exist.

Practical implications

Many organizations may refrain from offering more promotional opportunities to women for fear of reverse discrimination. This research demonstrates that the organization will be perceived as fairer if it offers more opportunities to women, should create a stronger organizational culture and higher financial performance.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper is the first to address the gender inequity in promotional opportunities of hotel employees and demonstrate the overall benefit of combating such inequality. This is the first time that anti-male bias has been addressed in the hospitality context, suggesting the need for more research on reverse discrimination, especially in promotional situations.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Juan M. Madera, Priyanko Guchait and Mary Dawson

The purpose of this paper is to examine how managers react to sexual harassment as a function of the harasser role that includes a customer as a source of harassment and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how managers react to sexual harassment as a function of the harasser role that includes a customer as a source of harassment and an organization’s climate for sexual harassment.

Design/methodology/approach

Using an experiment with a 2 (harasser role: coworker or customer) × 2 (organizational climate of sexual harassment: tolerates or does not tolerate) between-subjects design, 162 hotel managers were randomly assigned to read one of four conditions.

Findings

Both the harasser role and organization’s climate for sexual harassment influenced the managers’ sexual harassment reactions, specifically whether they label the incident as sexual harassment and attribute responsibility to the organization. The managers’ gender was found to moderate these relationships.

Practical implications

The results underscore the importance of understanding reactions to sexual harassment because, regardless of who harasses (coworker or customer) and the organizational climate (tolerates or does not tolerate sexual harassment), sexual harassment of any form can be harmful for the well-being of hospitality employees. These results also provide educational implications.

Originality/value

This is the first known experimental study to examine how hospitality managers react to sexual harassment when the harasser role includes a customer versus a coworker. The results illustrate that the same sexually harassing behavior was perceived less negatively – in regard to both the labeling and attribution of organizational responsibility – when it was done by a customer than by a coworker.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2011

Juan M. Madera

The purpose of this paper is to review the contribution made by this theme issue to the literature examining workforce diversity in the hospitality industry and methods…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the contribution made by this theme issue to the literature examining workforce diversity in the hospitality industry and methods that can be used to remediate communication barriers due to differences.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews some of the key contributions arising from this theme issue.

Findings

The summary highlights the research on workforce and diversity and communication barriers and discusses the implications of diversity for hospitality employers and researchers.

Research limitations/implications

Diversity is a modern day reality that brings challenges and opportunities to hospitality operators.

Originality/value

The research in this theme provides insight from both practitioner and academic perspectives as to how employers can remove communication barriers at the workplace.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2019

Lindsey Lee and Juan M. Madera

The purpose of this paper is to provide an exhaustive review of emotional labor research from the hospitality and tourism literature by outlining the theories, the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an exhaustive review of emotional labor research from the hospitality and tourism literature by outlining the theories, the antecedents and the outcomes of emotional labor, as well as the underlying mechanisms (i.e. mediators and moderators) of emotional labor.

Design/methodology/approach

This study provides a qualitative and critical review of emotional labor research from the hospitality and tourism literature, providing insights into the trends and gaps in the literature.

Findings

The conservation of resources theory and affective event theory are the two most common theories in the reviewed literature. Emotional intelligence and personality are the most commonly investigated antecedents while burnout and job satisfaction are the most investigated outcomes of emotional labor. Stress and burnout are the most examined mediators of emotional labor and subsequent outcomes, such as commitment, turnover intentions and well-being. Moderators include leader-member exchange, job position, gender and climate of authenticity.

Practical implications

Four major gaps for research and practice are identified as follows: the lack of an overarching theoretical framework; inconsistency in how emotional labor is defined and measured; the vast majority of emotional labor studies are cross-sectional studies; and no research examines potential interventions to help service employees engage in effective emotional labor strategies.

Originality/value

This review offers a model providing a comprehensive framework that outlines the various antecedents, outcomes, mediators and moderators of emotional labor and corresponding theories for future research.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2011

Judy Waight and Juan M. Madera

A growing body of research demonstrates that diversity training can be successful in improving attitudes and behaviors towards ethnic minorities but, very little research…

Abstract

Purpose

A growing body of research demonstrates that diversity training can be successful in improving attitudes and behaviors towards ethnic minorities but, very little research focuses on the effects of diversity training on ethnic minorities' attitudes. Therefore, the purpose of the current paper is to examine ethnic differences in organizational attitudes as a function of offering diversity training.

Design/methodology/approach

Using survey methodology, 186 students majoring in hotel and restaurant management that were part‐ or full‐time employees at a hospitality operation were requested to participate. Participants were forwarded an e‐mail with the link to the survey that contained the measures of interests, as well as demographic questions, control variables, and a debriefing statement.

Findings

The results showed that offering diversity training at the workplace had a significant effect for ethnic minorities' job satisfaction, perceived workplace discrimination, and turnover intentions, but this effect was not found for majority‐member participants. Perceived workplace discrimination mediated the relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intentions.

Research limitations/implications

This study provides support that diversity training is a tool that can have a positive impact on ethnic minority employees, while not negatively affecting Caucasian employees.

Originality/value

Very little research examines why diversity training works. This research shows that by offering diversity training, organizations potentially send signals to their employees that a diverse workforce is important.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2019

Lindsey Lee and Juan M. Madera

The purpose of this paper is to examine how emotional labor strategies (deep and surface acting) impact engagement through stress via two different emotional displays…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how emotional labor strategies (deep and surface acting) impact engagement through stress via two different emotional displays (suppressing negative emotions and expressing positive emotions) in coworker-to-coworker relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used psychological and temporal separation techniques to survey hotel managers (Study 1) and hospitality students with frontline service jobs (Study 2).

Findings

Across both samples, the results showed that surface acting was related to suppressing negative emotions, which was positively related to stress, deep acting was related to expressing positive emotions, which was negatively related to stress, and stress was negatively related to engagement, suggesting that emotional labor affects engagement through either deep acting or surface acting and their related emotional displays.

Practical implications

The results show that hospitality employees either genuinely express positive emotions as a strategy to deep act or suppress negative emotions as a strategy to surface act with coworkers. Both emotional displays were related to engagement, suggesting that employers should alter expectations for emotional displays among coworkers and train employees how to manage their emotions to have a positive impact on engagement.

Originality/value

The unique contribution of the current paper is showing how emotional labor is related to engagement in the context of coworker-to-coworker emotional labor, which is rarely found in customer-based emotional labor. The results also provide a better understanding of how surface and deep acting are used in a hospitality context, because the measures of surface and deep acting usually focus on broad emotions rather than discrete emotions.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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