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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2019

Nicholas J. Beutell, Jeffrey W. Alstete, Joy A. Schneer and Camille Hutt

The purpose of this paper is to test a model predicting self-employment (SE) personal growth (learning opportunities and creativity) and SE exit intentions (exiting to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test a model predicting self-employment (SE) personal growth (learning opportunities and creativity) and SE exit intentions (exiting to work for someone else and exit likelihood) based on the job demands-resources model.

Design/methodology/approach

SEM was used to examine SE demands and resources, strain, and engagement predicting growth, exit intentions, job satisfaction, and life satisfaction. SE type (owners with employees and independent owners without employees) was a moderator variable. Data were analyzed from a national probability sample (n=464 self-employed respondents for whom SE was their primary work involvement), the National Study of the Changing Workforce.

Findings

Overall support for the model was found. Work–family conflict (demand) and work–family synergy (resource) had the strongest relationships with strain and engagement. Strain was positively related to both growth and exit intentions while engagement was inversely related to exit intentions but positively related to growth. The model was significantly different for business owners and independently self-employed.

Practical implications

These results provide guidance to researchers and educators regarding the challenges of self- employment engagement and strain with implications for selecting business types that minimize exit likelihood while maximizing work engagement and personal growth potential.

Originality/value

This study breaks new ground by testing a structural model of engagement and growth for self-employed individuals while also investigating two types of exit intentions. The authors report findings for growth and exit decisions that have received scant attention in the literature to date. Type of SE was a significant variable.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2003

Frieda Reitman and Joy A. Schneer

The career path once promised to good managers was an uninterrupted, upward climb on a corporate ladder. When environmental forces caused organizations to downsize and…

Abstract

The career path once promised to good managers was an uninterrupted, upward climb on a corporate ladder. When environmental forces caused organizations to downsize and restructure, the promise was broken. A protean path emerged, one that was self‐directed rather than company‐directed, and involved changes in employment. The study assesses whether managers have achieved the promised path and whether demographic and career factors differ for those on promised versus protean paths. Longitudinal data from MBAs surveyed three times over a 13‐year period demonstrated that the promised career path still exists for one‐third of the MBAs. Managers on promised paths were somewhat older and worked in larger companies. However, they did not have greater income, managerial level, career satisfaction, company loyalty, or job security than those on protean paths. Women followed both paths but career advancement was more accessible on protean paths. This study makes a unique contribution as the longitudinal data, controlled educational background, and controlled time period enhance understanding of managerial career paths.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2003

Some 20 or 30 years ago, embarking on a managerial career was a safe and secure option. You could reasonably expect to join a company, work your way up the ladder, hit top…

Abstract

Some 20 or 30 years ago, embarking on a managerial career was a safe and secure option. You could reasonably expect to join a company, work your way up the ladder, hit top management level and retire with a golden farewell as thanks for your loyalty. Not any more. As a result of the downsizing and restructuring of companies in the 1980s and 1990s, relationships between employer and employee are no longer so sturdy. These days very few can be totally confident their job is safe.

Details

Development and Learning in Organizations: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7282

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Article
Publication date: 5 August 2014

Nicholas J. Beutell and Joy A. Schneer

Hispanics represent a growing segment of the US population and workforce, yet there is a lack of empirical research on Hispanics in relation to work-family conflict and…

Abstract

Purpose

Hispanics represent a growing segment of the US population and workforce, yet there is a lack of empirical research on Hispanics in relation to work-family conflict and synergy. Drawing on work-family and job demands-resources theories, the authors model predictors (autonomy, schedule flexibility, social support, work hours) and outcomes (health and satisfaction) of work-family variables among Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This quantitative study examined responses from respondents (n=2,988) of the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce using descriptive statistics, t-tests, ANOVAs, and structural equation models (SEM). The paper focusses primarily on Hispanics and also examined gender differences for Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites.

Findings

Hispanic women reported the highest work-family conflict (work interfering with family (WIF) and family interfering with work (FIW)) and synergy (work-family synergy (WFS)) levels. Job resources are related to WIF for Hispanic women but not Hispanic men. Autonomy was the best predictor of WFS for all groups. Coping mediated the depression-life satisfaction relationship. WIF and WFS were each significantly related to job satisfaction. Job satisfaction and life satisfaction were significantly related for all groups except Hispanic women. Job satisfaction-turnover paths were significant.

Research limitations/implications

Although based on a high-quality national probability sample, all information was gathered from one extensive interview. There is also a need to examine subgroups of Hispanics beyond the scope of this data set.

Practical implications

Results suggest similarities as well as differences in work-family variables for Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites. Corporate work-family policies and initiatives may need to be altered in light of ethnicity and gender issues as the workforce becomes more diverse.

Originality/value

This study examined work-family conflict and synergy among Hispanics. The predominance of research on non-Hispanic whites needed to be extended to different racial/ethnic groups who may experience WIF, FIW, and WFS differently.

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2009

Alain Klarsfeld and Anne‐Francoise Bender

The purpose of this paper is to report upon the “Diversity and equal opportunities” Special Interest Group of the Francophone Association of Research in Human Resource…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report upon the “Diversity and equal opportunities” Special Interest Group of the Francophone Association of Research in Human Resource Management (AGRH), which held its first international conference on “Gender and diversity in organizations”, at the ESCPEAP European Management School in Paris in January 2009.

Design/methodology/approach

Equal opportunity and diversity management are relatively recent research fields in Continental Europe, and particularly in France, however there were 95 conference participants who attended two plenary sessions, four workshops and one round table.

Findings

Sub‐themes were: diversity management and gender equality; Work‐life practices and equality policies between women and men; gender stereotypes and management; and women's and men's careers. The workshops covered: diversity management and gender equity; work‐life practices; women and men's careers; and social representations and stereotypes.

Originality/value

This paper provides an informative overview of the conference which was original in being co‐sponsored by The Emilie du Chatelet Institute – the first research network for developing and publishing research on women, sex and gender in France. The co‐sponsor was the IAE Gustave Eiffel (Business studies department of the Paris 12 University).

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 28 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1995

Employment of Urban Chinese Women Volume Lll, Number 1 of theReview of Social Economy includes an article by Gale Summerfield enrided “Effects of the Changing Employment…

Abstract

Employment of Urban Chinese Women Volume Lll, Number 1 of theReview of Social Economy includes an article by Gale Summerfield enrided “Effects of the Changing Employment Situation on Urban Chinese Women”.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 14 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2006

Joy Schneer and Frieda Reitman

This study examines the impact of employment gaps on career success for men and women managers. Women have had concerns about their ability to achieve career success in…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the impact of employment gaps on career success for men and women managers. Women have had concerns about their ability to achieve career success in managerial careers that had required uninterrupted commitment.

Design/methodology/approach

The study analyzes mail survey data collected in early post‐MBA career from men and women MBAs. Two cohorts of alumni were sent surveys containing questions on career and demographic factors. Career success was assessed using an objective measure (yearly income) and a subjective measure (career satisfaction).

Findings

MBAs with employment gaps earned less than those continuously employed for both the early and recent cohorts. This income penalty appears to be worse for men. Career satisfaction is not impacted by an employment gap for the recent cohort.

Research limitations/implications

Since the sample is geographically limited, the findings may not apply to other regions of the US or other countries.

Practical implications

There is still a bias against managers with discontinuous work histories. While the managers themselves have accepted alternate career patterns, employers have not. The nature of career paths is changing and organizations need to accept this.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the career literature by providing analyses of two data sets from different decades with the same controlled educational background. It seems that women and men can achieve a satisfying managerial career even with time out of work although there are still some income penalties.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Book part
Publication date: 23 August 2018

Beth Turnbull, Melissa Graham and Ann Taket

Whether or not women have children has profound consequences for their employment experiences. Employers may see women with no children as conforming more closely than…

Abstract

Whether or not women have children has profound consequences for their employment experiences. Employers may see women with no children as conforming more closely than women with children (and yet not as closely as male employees) to the pervasive ‘ideal worker’ stereotype of a full-time, committed worker with no external responsibilities. However, managers and co-workers may also perceive women with no children as deviating from prevailing pronatalist norms in Australian and other comparable societies, which construct and value women as mothers and stigmatise and devalue women with no children. Accordingly, women with no children may be rewarded or penalised in different employment contexts at different times according to the degree to which they conform to or deviate from the most salient characteristics associated with the ideal worker and mothering femininity. This chapter explores patriarchal and capitalist configurations of femininities, masculinities and workers as drivers of employment experiences among women with no children. It then discusses empirical research from Australia and comparable countries, in order to elucidate the diversity of employment experiences among women with no children.

Details

Voluntary and Involuntary Childlessness
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-362-1

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2003

Dean Elmuti, Judith Lehman, Brandon Harmon, Xiaoyan Lu, Andrea Pape, Ren Zhang and Terad Zimmerle

We examined the role gender plays in managerial stereotypes and changes that have occurred in the US for executive women in the workforce. We also investigated factors and…

Abstract

We examined the role gender plays in managerial stereotypes and changes that have occurred in the US for executive women in the workforce. We also investigated factors and personality traits that affect advancement into upper management for all executives and those that affect women in particular. Despite increased organisational sensitivity, public policies, and equal rights legislation, women continue to be underrepresented in corporate America. Pay increases and promotions for females have not kept pace with those for men. Study results also indicate that managerial womenwho juggle jobs and family life benefit from these multiple roles, but women who put off marriage and family to build top‐level careers suffer in later years from greatly reduced chances of finding spouses and having children. Further adaptation of organisational culture in the new economy, weakening of the glass ceiling phenomenon, and family friendly work policies may alleviate some of the difficulties experienced by women who want it all.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 23 February 2010

Faye K. Cocchiara, Eileen Kwesiga, Myrtle P. Bell and Yehuda Baruch

The purpose of this paper is to examine the perceptions of US MBA and specialist master's degree alumni to determine the influence that their degree program experiences…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the perceptions of US MBA and specialist master's degree alumni to determine the influence that their degree program experiences had on subsequent perceptions of career success.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 318 alumni MBA and specialist master's degree recipients from a large university in the southwestern USA; more than half of them were male. The university provided independent demographic data used to match respondents' surveys.

Findings

Evidence was found that men and women graduates perceived their post‐graduate degree success differently, with women graduates reporting less salary gain but higher hierarchical levels and job satisfaction compared to men. Social capital and perceived discrimination indirectly affected the reported career success of graduates on hierarchical level salary gain.

Research limitations/implications

Use of self‐report data, for all model variables, puts the findings at risk for common‐method bias. Additionally, while discrimination measure had acceptable reliability for this sample, it has not been widely validated.

Practical implications

The findings that women viewed their graduate program as less effective for advancing their careers than men despite earning higher grades suggests that business schools emphasize improving graduate student experiences as well as managerial competencies. Organizations' leaders should make their diversity management practices readily apparent as women and minority MBA graduates are likely to view such practices as important during their job search.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the knowledge of factors that influence career success.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

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