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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2011

Bo Edvardsson, Gloria Ng, Choo Zhi Min, Robert Firth and Ding Yi

Few empirical studies have been conducted to explore the mechanisms and drivers of service exchange and value co‐creation. In particular, no study has compared a service…

Abstract

Purpose

Few empirical studies have been conducted to explore the mechanisms and drivers of service exchange and value co‐creation. In particular, no study has compared a service system design informed by service‐dominant logic (SDL) with a service system design informed by goods‐dominant logic (GDL). The purpose of this paper is to address this knowledge gap. The research question is: does a service‐dominant system design result in a more favourable customer experience than a goods‐dominant service system?

Design/methodology/approach

An experiment was carried out on a group of habitual bus travellers. The subjects were asked to plan a specific journey using two online journey planning systems. Two hypotheses were tested: first, an SDL informed service system will evoke a better overall customer experience than a GDL informed service system. Second, this better customer experience arises out of seven service system design characteristics. Both objective and subjective data were gathered to compare the customers' experiences of using the two service systems.

Findings

The results show that a service‐dominant service system outperforms a goods‐dominant service system in terms of both objective and subjective criteria. Moreover, the experiment elucidates the subjects' perceived importance of the characteristics of a service‐dominant service system. Analysis of the subjects' perception of the two service systems reveals that certain characteristics set the service‐dominant service system more distinctly apart from the goods‐dominant one.

Originality/value

The paper contributes by extending the empirical foundation for service‐dominant logic, providing new knowledge on value co‐creation and design characteristics of service systems, and identifying the most important service system characteristics perceived by the customer.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

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Article
Publication date: 14 November 2016

Ragnhild Halvorsrud, Knut Kvale and Asbjørn Følstad

The purpose of this paper is to propose a framework based on customer journeys for a structured portrayal of service delivery from the customer’s point of view. The paper…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a framework based on customer journeys for a structured portrayal of service delivery from the customer’s point of view. The paper also introduces customer journey analysis (CJA) for empirical investigation of individual service experiences in a multichannel environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents case studies for onboarding new customers on broadband services. CJA starts with modeling of the service process in terms of touchpoints. The individual customer journeys are reconstructed through methodological triangulation of interviews, diary studies, and process tracking.

Findings

The paper provides empirical insights into individual customer journeys. Four types of deviations during service delivery are identified: occurrence of ad hoc touchpoints, irregularities in the sequence of logically connected touchpoints, occurrence of failures in touchpoints, and missing touchpoints. CJA seems effective in revealing problematic and incoherent service delivery that may result in unfavorable customer experiences.

Practical implications

For a service company, the proposed framework may serve as a unifying language to ease cross-departmental communication and approach service quality in a systematic way. CJA discloses the gap between the planned and actual service delivery and can be used as a tool for service improvement.

Originality/value

The framework provides concepts, definitions, and a visual notation to structure and manage services in terms of customer journeys. CJA is a novel method for empirical studies of the service delivery process and the associated customer experience.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 26 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2013

Bo Edvardsson, Gloria Ng, Zhi Min Choo and Robert Firth

Research suggests that service‐dominant designs are superior to goods‐dominant; but why? The purpose of this paper is to answer three questions. First, in what way is a…

Abstract

Purpose

Research suggests that service‐dominant designs are superior to goods‐dominant; but why? The purpose of this paper is to answer three questions. First, in what way is a service system based on service‐dominant logic (SDL) superior to one based on goods‐dominant logic (GDL)? Second, which characteristics of the service system facilitate the co‐creation of value‐in‐context as perceived by the customer? Third, how do customers describe the contents of these characteristics?

Design/methodology/approach

In an experiment, the authors compared two different service systems designed with different mindsets. The experiment was carried out with a group of habitual bus travellers to plan a specific journey using two online service systems by two different organizations; one exhibited a goods‐dominant mindset, and the other a service‐dominant mindset. The subjects' opinions of the two systems were gathered, and sentiment analysis was performed on the opinions to uncover the rationale behind the operational superiority of an SDL‐based system in value co‐creation.

Findings

The sentiment analysis identified three key differentiators: intangibles; operant resources; and information symmetry as the reason why an SDL‐based service system is superior to a GDL‐based system. The study also identified specific attributes linked to the key differentiators that could be built into a service system design and verified during a review of that design.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to research by: showing why an SDL based service system is superior to a GDL based one; proposing guidelines for service system design based on SDL to arrive at a favourable customer experience; and to managers by showing that customers have much to contribute in service development and realisation.

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Book part
Publication date: 4 May 2021

Bikramjit Rishi and Sapna Popli

A customer's journey of searching for a product or service, evaluating it, purchasing it, using it, recommending it, rebuying it or rejecting it is unique in itself…

Abstract

A customer's journey of searching for a product or service, evaluating it, purchasing it, using it, recommending it, rebuying it or rejecting it is unique in itself. Organisations always have dreamt of getting inside the customers' minds and trying to understand what's happening inside at each of these steps. This chapter explains the customer journey concept and the analysis of the various components of the customer journey. We highlight that the firms need to understand the customer journeys and the multiple touchpoints they interact with to create a worthwhile customer experience. The chapter lists out the various touchpoints, including social/external touchpoints, customer-owned touchpoints, partner-owned touchpoints and brand-owned touchpoints. We discuss three frameworks that can be used by a firm to understand design a customer journey. These frameworks include AIDA (awareness, interest, desire and action), MAI (measure, analyse and improve) and journey maps. The chapter recommends the various steps which a firm can use to create a journey map. In the end, we create a linkage between the customer journey and business transformation. The chapter builds a case for the application of customer journey management by pointing out that it is a complex phenomenon, and the firms should use a structured approach to design and manage the customer journey.

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Merlin Stone and Eleni Aravopoulou

This case study describes how one of the world’s largest public transport operations, Transport for London (TfL), transformed the real-time availability of information for…

Abstract

Purpose

This case study describes how one of the world’s largest public transport operations, Transport for London (TfL), transformed the real-time availability of information for its customers and staff through the open data approach, and what the results of this transformation were. The purpose of this paper is therefore to show what is required for an open data approach to work.

Design/methodology/approach

This case study is based mainly on interviews at TfL and data supplied by TfL directly to the researchers. It analyses as far as possible the reported facts of the case to identify the processes required for open data and the benefits thereof.

Findings

The main finding is that achieving an open data approach in public transport is helped by having a clear commitment to the idea that the data belong to the public and that third parties should be allowed to use and repurpose the information, by having a strong digital strategy, and by creating strong partnerships with data management organisations that can support the delivery of high volumes of information.

Research limitations/implications

This research is based upon a single case study, albeit over an extensive period, so the findings cannot be applied simply to other situations, other than as evidence of what is possible. However, similar processes could be applied in other situations as a heuristic approach to open data strategy implementation.

Practical implications

The case study shows how open data can be used to create commercial and non-commercial customer-facing products and services, which passengers and other road users use to gain a better travel experience, and that this approach can be valued in terms of financial/economic contribution to customers and organisations.

Social implications

This case study shows the value that society can obtain from the opening of data in public transport, and the importance of public service innovation in delivering benefits to citizens.

Originality/value

This is the first case study to show in some detail some of the processes and activities required to open data to public service customers and others.

Details

The Bottom Line, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0888-045X

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1980

OUR leading article last month was headed “Automation or Extinction”. We were told, not directly (for whether through shyness or lack of conviction we know not, they never…

Abstract

OUR leading article last month was headed “Automation or Extinction”. We were told, not directly (for whether through shyness or lack of conviction we know not, they never got in touch with us themselves) the TUC found no favour in it. Apparently while they don't mind us advocating shorter hours so that everybody who wants to can have at least a share in the employment that is available, they object to our underlining the fact that while Union chiefs wanted prices of their goods to be cut (in this case, steel; but the principle applies to everything) they neglected to say how this could be done.

Details

Work Study, vol. 29 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0043-8022

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Article
Publication date: 19 February 2021

Majd AbedRabbo, Cathy Hart and Fiona Ellis–Chadwick

The purpose of this study is to explore the role played by digital channel integration in the town-centre shopping experience. It also explores how customers perceive the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the role played by digital channel integration in the town-centre shopping experience. It also explores how customers perceive the role of digital in the town-centres shopping journeys, improves shopping experiences and encourages positive future patronage behaviour. Ultimately, the aim is to identify the likely implications of a connected shopping experience on patronage intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative research design using focus groups to explore customers' perceptions of connected town-centre shopping experiences was deployed. Then, data were analysed using thematic analysis to identify overarching themes.

Findings

Digital integration has the potential to serve discreetly different functions in the town-centre context: create interconnected information channels, facilitate improved connected shopping experiences, generate positive perceptions of a town, which subsequently shape future patronage intentions. The study also revealed expectations of digital integration are yet to be fully realised in the town-centre context and there are tensions between physical and digital domains to be overcome if digital integration is to positively influence patronage intentions.

Research limitations/implications

The nature of exploratory research tends to pose questions and open out a problem rather than provide definitive answers. This study has sought to highlight key issues and also provide points of departure for future studies. The significance and generalisability of the results are limited by the size and nature of the sample.

Originality/value

This study provides theoretical contribution to the town-centre literature by expanding the understanding of consumers' perceptions of the role of digital integration in shopping journey experiences and unlocks insights into its potential impact on future patronage intentions. Practical considerations for integrating digital in the town centre to create more connected shopping experiences.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1989

Nigel Kemp

Personal development involves individuals acting and reflecting onthe world and themselves, and learning from this. The practical issuesfaced by facilitators in setting up…

Abstract

Personal development involves individuals acting and reflecting on the world and themselves, and learning from this. The practical issues faced by facilitators in setting up and running self‐development groups are discussed. The structure of the process is focused on and a number of guidelines presented.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 1 December 2017

David Metz

Improvements in digital technology, increased automation and the sharing economy are all promised changes in transport provision over the next few years. How will such…

Abstract

Improvements in digital technology, increased automation and the sharing economy are all promised changes in transport provision over the next few years. How will such changes effect an increasing ageing society? There are obvious advantages that technology can bring to improve tickets on public transport with smartcards which will help older people. Trip planning can be facilitated with better more bespoke travel information and improved satnav and real-time information. Mobility scooters, electronic bikes and better inclusive designed cars and buses all help the offering to older people to maintain their mobility. Internet-based platforms facilitate collective transport offerings and can facilitate community transport and transport networks which help older people stay mobile. Supporting policy and legislation can help older people achieve quality mobility, for example accessibility has increased step-free access to public transport across Europe, though there remains still some inaccessibility especially where modification of existing infrastructure remains a costly barrier.

Details

Transport, Travel and Later Life
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-624-2

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Book part
Publication date: 7 January 2019

Robin James Smith and Sara Delamont

Abstract

Details

The Lost Ethnographies: Methodological Insights from Projects that Never Were
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-773-7

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