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Book part
Publication date: 30 June 2017

Hilde Bjørkhaug, Jostein Vik and Carol Richards

Up until recent years, all agricultural production in Norway was strictly regulated through spatial policy (location), production quotas and other price and market…

Abstract

Up until recent years, all agricultural production in Norway was strictly regulated through spatial policy (location), production quotas and other price and market regulations. Prices and products were handled by the farmers’ cooperatives. International (e.g. WTO agreements) and domestic pressure has gradually loosened the governmental regulation of chicken and eggs. Economic (e.g. new ownerships), technological (innovations throughout the whole chain), political and institutional (liberalization) and cultural (e.g. in consumption and farming) changes have reconfigured the landscapes of chicken meat production, opening up new opportunities for the chicken industry. Chicken therefore makes a particularly good case for exploring recent major changes in the agri-food system. In this chapter, we investigate evolving rules, risks, challenges and opportunities in and around chicken meat value chains. Empirically, we build on interviews, document studies and statistics on the structural development of the chicken industry and we discuss how these changes are developing in other parts of the Norwegian agri-food system.

Article
Publication date: 4 September 2009

Jostein Vik and Maja Farstad

Green care – the utilisation of farms as the basis for health services – is seen as a promising addition to other health services, and it is seen as a viable…

1124

Abstract

Purpose

Green care – the utilisation of farms as the basis for health services – is seen as a promising addition to other health services, and it is seen as a viable diversification strategy for many farm families. However, the number of such services is low both in Norway and in Europe in general. The development of green care seems to have stagnated. This paper seeks to analyze and discuss the case of Norwegian green care in order to reflect on the hindrances to the further development of a viable green care sector.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper analyzes the green care market, green care policies and the interaction of social worlds that are necessary to make the green care sector function smoothly.

Findings

The conclusion is that there is a sound basis for a green care market and that there are sufficient political support and political engagement for the development of green care in Norway. The problem with the green care sector is the interaction between the “social worlds” involved in the sector – the suppliers/farmers, the users, and the (public sector) buyers. It is argued that the development of a green care market is hampered by the lack of an institutional framework and a set of market devices capable of bringing key actors together.

Research limitations/implications

The paper presents an analysis of the Norwegian green care sector. It shows that there are substantial cross‐national differences between health service systems, and therefore comparisons between nations are difficult. However, the principal challenges – diverse social groups, the lack of institutional frames, and immature markets – are shared. Therefore, the need for further research is evident and there are lessons to be learned from cross‐national comparison and case studies.

Originality/value

Within the green care research field, there have been few social science studies that address organisational issues and the governance of this new and emerging business. Theoretically oriented and analytical contributions on organisational aspects of green care services are therefore timely. This paper is such a contribution.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 June 2017

Abstract

Details

Transforming the Rural
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-823-9

Book part
Publication date: 30 June 2017

Abstract

Details

Transforming the Rural
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-823-9

Book part
Publication date: 11 April 2012

Reidar Almås and Jostein Brobakk

Purpose – Dairy has been the backbone of agriculture in regional Norway, and the processing of milk has been dominated by co-operatives owned by milk farmers. During the…

Abstract

Purpose – Dairy has been the backbone of agriculture in regional Norway, and the processing of milk has been dominated by co-operatives owned by milk farmers. During the social democratic order (1945–1979), productivist agriculture thrived, while a more multifunctional agriculture was developed after 1980. As a measure against overproduction, a quota system was introduced in 1983. The purpose of this study is to see if there are signs of a neo-productivism revival after climate change and other global shocks, like the food crisis, featured prominently on the political agenda.

Design/methodology/approach – The chapter reviews the radical structural changes in Norwegian dairy production since the early 1960s, which reduced the number of milk farms radically from 148,000 in 1959 to almost 16,000 in 2009. According to the Agricultural Agreement between the Norwegian government and the farmers' organisations, the co-operatives are given an important semi-public role as market-price regulators and stock keepers. This Norwegian system may be described as a classical regulated dairy regime. The Norwegian dairy regime has been through several deregulations and re-regulations over the last 20 years, partly forced by internal pressures and partly inspired by liberalisation tendencies abroad.

Findings – After mid-1990s, there has been an increase in the number of joint dairy farms, where individual ownership of land is maintained while herds, buildings and machinery are merged. Three thousand six hundred thirty dairy farmers are now participating in 1,510 joint farming firms, producing 29 per cent of the milk in Norway. This rapid growth of joint farming is transforming the dairy sector in Norway. Analysis has shown that its evolution is closely tied to farmer socio-economic demands, including social benefits, such as increased leisure time, and security during illness. While there has been pressure to increase productivity, the food crisis changed attitudes, making the current policy of import tariffs and subsidies easier to defend.

Originality/value – This chapter shows that neo-liberalism in Norway was not pursued as far as in most other OECD countries, although some deregulation was taking place. Norwegian agricultural policies are still regulating the sector to a substantial degree, with the annual Agricultural Agreement negotiations serving as a centrepiece. Norway has ambitious climate goals, and by 2020 greenhouse gases emissions should be reduced to 30 per cent of the 1990 rate. A further goal is that Norway will be carbon neutral by 2030. As part of the implementation of its climate policy, a White Paper on agriculture and climate change was put forward in May 2009. For Norwegian food production as a whole, a change towards more grazing at the expense of crops would improve carbon storage and reduce the overall use of fertiliser. Such a shift in land use would benefit the dairy sector, in part because of easier access to domestically grown cow feed.

Details

Rethinking Agricultural Policy Regimes: Food Security, Climate Change and the Future Resilience of Global Agriculture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-349-1

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 June 2021

Arun Thirumalesh Madanaguli, Puneet Kaur, Stefano Bresciani and Amandeep Dhir

Entrepreneurship in the rural hospitality and tourism sector (RHT) has received wide attention in the past decade. However, a systematic review on this topic is currently…

Abstract

Purpose

Entrepreneurship in the rural hospitality and tourism sector (RHT) has received wide attention in the past decade. However, a systematic review on this topic is currently lacking. This study aims to track the progress of the RHT and entrepreneurship literature by examining the various thematic research areas, identifying the research gaps and forecasting avenues of future research on the topic.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper catalogs and synthesizes the body of literature from the year 2000–2020 using a systematic literature review methodology. After discussing a brief history of RHT and entrepreneurship, the current study presents a review of 101 research articles.

Findings

The review highlights that RHT and entrepreneurship have received relatively limited attention from entrepreneurship journals. The content analysis revealed different gaps and limitations in the understanding of entrepreneurship in RHT, including a predominance of qualitative studies with limited theoretically-grounded and generalizable empirical studies. Furthermore, a high concentration of studies is from European countries. Six main thematic research areas were identified, namely, barriers and enablers, the roles of an entrepreneur, women in RHT, influencers of firm performance, innovation and value creation and methodological commonalities. The review also advances an RHT entrepreneurship ecosystem framework to summarize the findings.

Originality/value

Six promising research avenues are outlined based on the six themes identified. The suggested research questions draw from allied literature on small and medium businesses, innovation, women entrepreneurship and institutions to encourage the interdisciplinary cross-pollination of ideas. The findings are summarized in a novel research framework.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 33 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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