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Book part
Publication date: 27 December 2013

Jason Dockstader

This chapter argues that environmental ethicists commit a serious error when they require that people hold a moral realist metaethical belief in the intrinsic value of…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter argues that environmental ethicists commit a serious error when they require that people hold a moral realist metaethical belief in the intrinsic value of non-human living things and non-living natural things in order to be able to behave in an ethically acceptable manner toward the environment.

Methodology

Environmental ethics regard this position as the mandatory non-anthropocentrism one must first hold in order to be in a proper moral relationship to the environment. The main reason for seeing this requirement as an error is that it is politically unrealistic insofar most people most of the time behave in political contexts on the basis of instrumental and not intrinsic reasons. To claim that people can behave in a morally acceptable manner toward the environment if and only if they first believe in its intrinsic value is not only politically unrealistic, but also actually false.

Findings

The chapter looks at recent studies measuring the behavior of political and moral philosophers which shows that they do not behave in any markedly way better than non-moral philosophers. Ethicists, whom one can assume believe in some form or another of the mind-independent reality of moral properties, are not more morally well-behaved for holding such a belief.

Implications

Ethicists, especially environmental ethicists, are in no position to require of us to believe in the intrinsic value of the environment in order to behave in more beneficial ways toward it.

Details

Environmental Philosophy: The Art of Life in a World of Limits
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-137-3

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 6 December 2011

Joshua Rust

Purpose – To better understand the relation between Friedrich Hayek's “theoretical psychology” and contemporary connectionist theories of mind.Methodology/approach – There…

Abstract

Purpose – To better understand the relation between Friedrich Hayek's “theoretical psychology” and contemporary connectionist theories of mind.

Methodology/approach – There is much in The Sensory Order that recommends the oft-made claim that Hayek anticipated connectionist theories of mind. To the extent that this is so, contemporary arguments against and for connectionism, as advanced by Jerry Fodor, Zenon Pylyshyn, and John Searle, are shown as applicable to theoretical psychology. However, the final section of this chapter highlights an important disanalogy between theoretical psychology and connectionist theories of mind.

Findings – While Hayek can be construed as a connectionist, it is argued that Hayek's ontological presuppositions are not shared by contemporary theorists of mind. In particular, modern critiques of Hayek's theoretical psychology qua connectionism assume that he attempts to provide an account of the mind within the confines of scientific naturalism. This essay argues that this assumption is false. Hayek's ontological presuppositions are more akin to Kant's, implying that Hayek's question is importantly different from those asked by contemporary theorists of mind.

Originality/value of the chapter – At a certain level of abstraction, a Hayakian machine is not unlike certain versions of a connectionist machine. However, to adequately assess the significance of The Sensory Order on its own terms, Hayek's project must be disentangled from our own ontological preoccupations.

Details

Hayek in Mind: Hayek's Philosophical Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-399-6

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Book part
Publication date: 6 December 2011

Abstract

Details

Hayek in Mind: Hayek's Philosophical Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-399-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Roseanne C. Moody and Daniel J. Pesut

The purpose of this research is to describe a model of nurses' work motivation relevant to the human caring stance of professional nursing work.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to describe a model of nurses' work motivation relevant to the human caring stance of professional nursing work.

Design/methodology/approach

The model was derived from selected theories of behavioral motivation and work motivation. Evidence‐based theory addressing nurses' work motivation and nurses' motivational states and traits in relation to characteristics of organizational culture and patient health outcomes is suggested in an effort to make a distinct contribution to health services research. An integrated review of selected theories of motivation is presented, including conceptual analyses, theory‐building techniques, and the evidence supporting the theoretical propositions and linkages among variables intrinsic to nurses' work motivation.

Findings

The model of the Motivation to Care for Professional Nursing Work is a framework intended for empirical testing and theory building. The model proposes specific leadership and management strategies to support a culture of motivational caring and competence in health care organizations.

Originality/value

Attention to motivation theory and research provides insights and suggests relationships among nurses' motivation to care, motivational states and traits, individual differences that influence nurses' work motivation, and the special effects of nurses' work motivation on patient care outcomes. Suggestions for nursing administrative direction and research are proposed.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1962

Anti‐dust Rust Film. Two new products are announced to overcome dust in ovens and rusting of equipment and instruments subject to high temperatures.

Abstract

Anti‐dust Rust Film. Two new products are announced to overcome dust in ovens and rusting of equipment and instruments subject to high temperatures.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 9 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1978

The Equal Pay Act 1970 (which came into operation on 29 December 1975) provides for an “equality clause” to be written into all contracts of employment. S.1(2) (a) of the…

Abstract

The Equal Pay Act 1970 (which came into operation on 29 December 1975) provides for an “equality clause” to be written into all contracts of employment. S.1(2) (a) of the 1970 Act (which has been amended by the Sex Discrimination Act 1975) provides:

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2004

Verta Taylor, Leila J. Rupp and Joshua Gamson

This paper presents a theoretical definition of protest that overcomes the bifurcation of politics and culture in mainstream social movement research. The model is…

Abstract

This paper presents a theoretical definition of protest that overcomes the bifurcation of politics and culture in mainstream social movement research. The model is grounded in a study of drag performances, which have a long history in same-sex communities as vehicles for expressing gay identity, creating and maintaining solidarity, and staging political resistance. Extending Tilly’s concept of repertoires of contention, we propose the term “tactical repertoires” to refer to protest episodes, and we identify three elements of all tactical repertoires: contestation, intentionality, and collective identity. We combine social constructionist perspectives on gender and sexuality, the social movement literature, and writings in performance studies to understand how drag performances function as tactical repertoires of the gay and lesbian movement. We argue that because they are entertaining, drag shows illuminate gay life for mainstream audiences and provide a space for the construction of collective identities that confront and rework gender and sexual boundaries.

Details

Authority in Contention
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-037-1

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Li‐teh Sun

Man has been seeking an ideal existence for a very long time. In this existence, justice, love, and peace are no longer words, but actual experiences. How ever, with the…

Abstract

Man has been seeking an ideal existence for a very long time. In this existence, justice, love, and peace are no longer words, but actual experiences. How ever, with the American preemptive invasion and occupation of Afghanistan and Iraq and the subsequent prisoner abuse, such an existence seems to be farther and farther away from reality. The purpose of this work is to stop this dangerous trend by promoting justice, love, and peace through a change of the paradigm that is inconsistent with justice, love, and peace. The strong paradigm that created the strong nation like the U.S. and the strong man like George W. Bush have been the culprit, rather than the contributor, of the above three universal ideals. Thus, rather than justice, love, and peace, the strong paradigm resulted in in justice, hatred, and violence. In order to remove these three and related evils, what the world needs in the beginning of the third millenium is the weak paradigm. Through the acceptance of the latter paradigm, the golden mean or middle paradigm can be formulated, which is a synergy of the weak and the strong paradigm. In order to understand properly the meaning of these paradigms, however, some digression appears necessary.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 25 no. 6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2017

Shepherd Muchuru and Godwell Nhamo

This paper aims to investigate and review adaptation measures in the livestock sector from 21 African countries through literature survey and grounded theory approaches…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate and review adaptation measures in the livestock sector from 21 African countries through literature survey and grounded theory approaches. The adaptation themes that emerged captured essence of measures and experience drawn from varied country submissions and contexts instituted to make the livestock sector climate compatible in as far as adaptation is concerned.

Design/methodology/approach

Literature survey approach was used on the impacts of climate change on livestock and a review of the submitted adaptation measures. The study used grounded theory approach to derive meaning from the retrieved information. The grounded theory was derived inductively through systematic collection and analysis of data pertaining to the submitted National Communications reports. The retrieved themes were then examined and interpreted to give meaning and draw conclusions through coding, conceptualizing, categorizing and theorizing.

Findings

Results identify eight adaptation themes: carrying capacity and policies; integrated pasture management; capacity building, extension, training, awareness and information sharing; livestock breeding, diversification and intensification; disease, vectors and parasites management; technology, innovation, research and development; alternative livelihood; and water supply. The findings show that African Governments have been implementing effective adaptation measures for food security through building a climate resilient livestock production system.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first to lead to recommendations that decision- and policymakers, private sectors, relevant stakeholders and government officials and scientists should play a key role in ensuring that adaptation measures reach farmers, herders at grassroots level. In addition, governments should create an enabling environment (policies) in climate change adaptation to improve food security. These recommendations might be helpful in many communities where adaptation to climate change is a pressing issue.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

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