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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2018

Svetlana Obydenkova, Nicholas C. Anzalone and Joshua M. Pearce

Isolated communities face a variety of inconveniences including severe remoteness, poor roads and extreme climate conditions, resulting in the lack of security of supply…

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Abstract

Purpose

Isolated communities face a variety of inconveniences including severe remoteness, poor roads and extreme climate conditions, resulting in the lack of security of supply chains and exorbitant prices for cargo delivery. This paper aims to investigate the present advantages and prospects of applying 3-D printing to improve economics and everyday life of remote communities, reindeer herder case taken as an example.

Design/methodology/approach

This study covers the use of a low-cost open-source 3-D printer (RepRap) capable of fused filament fabrication to reduce operating costs for nomadic reindeer herder groups. Three case studies are provided for reindeer-specific applications to probe economic and technical viability of the technology, namely, ear-tags, electric fence components and lasso accessories.

Findings

3-D printed objects feature technical characteristics similar to those of analogues available on the market while reducing the price by 63 per cent. Distributed 3-D printing reduces the cost of raw materials by 68 per cent and shipping costs by 50 because of lower trip frequency. If all reindeer herders globally were to adopt distributed manufacturing of the three aforementioned sample items only, their annual savings from such solution would amount to US$2m. The paper discovers other economic, entrepreneurial, technical and environmental opportunities offered by 3-D printing put to service the needs of remote communities.

Research limitations

As the paper is the first-ever study of 3-D printing potential applied to the reindeer husbandry case, it is based on a more thorough analysis of the techno-economic feasibility of the technology, while cultural and entrepreneurial factors have been discussed as preconditions only.

Practical implications

The paper might serve as a valuable source of information for entrepreneurs, as well as for students and academics for further case studies in this area.

Originality/value

In remote conditions, 3-D printing offers a more sustainable way of good manufacturing. Numerous open source designs already available for specialists, financial effectiveness, environmental benefits and vast opportunities for entrepreneurs are among the most promising advantages of the technology.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 August 2015

Gerald C. Anzalone, Bas Wijnen and Joshua M. Pearce

The purpose of this paper is to present novel modifications to a RepRap design that increase RepRap capabilities well beyond just fused filament fabrication. Open-source…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present novel modifications to a RepRap design that increase RepRap capabilities well beyond just fused filament fabrication. Open-source RepRap 3-D printers have made distributed manufacturing and prototyping an affordable reality.

Design/methodology/approach

The design is a significantly modified derivative of the Rostock delta-style RepRap 3-D printer. Modifications were made that permit easy and rapid repurposing of the platform for milling, paste extrusion and several other applications. All of the designs are open-source and freely available.

Findings

In addition to producing fused filament parts, the platform successfully produced milled printed circuit boards, milled plastic objects, objects made with paste extrudates, such as silicone, food stuffs and ceramics, pen plotted works and cut vinyl products. The multi-purpose tool saved 90-97 per cent of the capital costs of functionally equivalent dedicated tools.

Research limitations/implications

While the platform was used primarily for production of hobby and consumer goods, research implications are significant, as the tool is so versatile and the fact that the designs are open-source and eminently available for modification for more purpose-specific applications.

Practical implications

The platform vastly broadens capabilities of a RepRap machine at an extraordinarily low price, expanding the potential for distributed manufacturing and prototyping of items that heretofore required large financial investments.

Originality/value

The unique combination of relatively simple modifications to an existing platform has produced a machine having capabilities far exceeding that of any single commercial product. The platform provides users the ability to work with a wide variety of materials and fabrication methods at a price of less than $1,000, provided users are willing to build the machine themselves.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 21 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2013

Christian Baechler, Matthew DeVuono and Joshua M. Pearce

A low‐cost, open source, self‐replicating rapid prototyper (RepRap) has been developed, which greatly expands the potential user base of rapid prototypers. The operating…

3253

Abstract

Purpose

A low‐cost, open source, self‐replicating rapid prototyper (RepRap) has been developed, which greatly expands the potential user base of rapid prototypers. The operating cost of the RepRap can be further reduced using waste polymers as feedstock. Centralized recycling of polymers is often uneconomic and energy intensive due to transportation embodied energy. The purpose of this paper is to provide a proof of concept for high‐value recycling of waste polymers at distributed creation sites.

Design/methodology/approach

Previous designs of waste plastic extruders (also known as RecycleBots) were evaluated using a weighted evaluation matrix. An updated design was completed and the description and analysis of the design is presented including component summary, testing procedures, a basic life cycle analysis and extrusion results. The filament was tested for consistency of density and diameter while quantifying electricity consumption.

Findings

Filament was successfully extruded at an average rate of 90 mm/min and used to print parts. The filament averaged 2.805 mm diameter with 87 per cent of samples between 2.540 mm and 3.081 mm. The average mass was 0.564 g/100 mm length. Energy use was 0.06 kWh/m.

Practical implications

The success of the RecycleBot further reduces RepRap operating costs, which enables distributed in‐home, value added, plastic recycling. This has implications for municipal waste management programs, as in‐home recycling could reduce cost and greenhouse gas emissions associated with waste collection and transportation, as well as the environmental impact of manufacturing custom plastic parts.

Originality/value

This paper reports on the first technical evaluation of a feedstock filament for the RepRap from waste plastic material made in a distributed recycling device.

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Joshua M. Pearce

The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of the purchase power of the higher education system to catalyze the economy of scale necessary to ensure market…

1968

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of the purchase power of the higher education system to catalyze the economy of scale necessary to ensure market competitiveness for solar photovoltaic electricity.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach used here was to first determine the demand necessary to construct “Solar City factories”, factories that possess equipment and processes sized, dedicated and optimized to produce only solar photovoltaic systems. Inexpensive solar cells from these factories could produce solar electricity at rates comparable to conventional fossil‐fuel derived electricity. Then it was determined if sufficient demand could be guaranteed by green purchasing from the international university system.

Findings

A focused effort from the university community to purchase on‐sight produced electricity would make it possible to construct truly large‐scale dedicated solar photovoltaic factories rather than follow the piecemeal production increases currently observed in the industry.

Practical implications

Direct economic competitiveness of an energy source having markedly lower environmental, social and health externalities would have a positive‐spiral (virtuous cycle) effect encouraging the transition of the global energy infrastructure away from polluting fossil fuels to green solar energy.

Originality/value

Despite significant commercial progress in the conversion efficiency of sunlight into electricity with solar photovoltaic cells, their widespread adoption is still limited by high costs relative to conventional fossil fuel‐based sources of electricity. The concept outlined and critically reviewed in this paper represents a novel and economical method of transitioning the electric supply system to renewable solar energy.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Joshua M. Pearce and Laura L. Miller

This paper aims to quantify and critically analyze the best practices of a comprehensive environmental stewardship strategy (ESS), which included a guaranteed energy…

1934

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to quantify and critically analyze the best practices of a comprehensive environmental stewardship strategy (ESS), which included a guaranteed energy savings program (GESP) that utilized an energy service company (ESCO).

Design/methodology/approach

The environmental and economic benefits and limitations of an approach utilizing an ESCO are critically analyzed in the context of implementing a comprehensive university sustainability strategy.

Findings

A GESP, which utilized the technical and financial expertise of energy service companies, improved the operational efficiency, decreased the ecological footprint, and reduced the operating costs of the university.

Practical implications

Energy‐saving projects are “win‐win” situations, addressing both economy and ecology. Utilizing energy service companies in the university setting is a useful method to catalyze university administration to support sustainability initiatives and accelerate the implementation of comprehensive sustainability strategies.

Originality/value

The current waste rampant at most universities provides a large number of opportunities to improve environmental stewardship while reducing operating costs. This paper provides a new model utilizing energy service companies to capitalize on these opportunities to move universities towards sustainability.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 August 2018

David Denkenberger, Joshua Pearce, Andrew Ray Taylor and Ryan Black

The purpose of this study is to estimate the price and life-saving potential of alternate foods. The sun could be blocked by asteroid impact, supervolcanic eruption or…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to estimate the price and life-saving potential of alternate foods. The sun could be blocked by asteroid impact, supervolcanic eruption or nuclear winter caused by burning of cities during a nuclear war. The primary problem in these scenarios is loss of food production. Previous work has shown that alternate foods not dependent on sunlight, such as bacteria grown on natural gas and cellulose turned into sugar enzymatically, could feed everyone in these catastrophes, and preparation for these foods would save lives in a manner that is highly cost-effective.

Design/methodology/approach

This study estimates the price of alternate foods during a catastrophe in line with global trade and information sharing, but factors such as migration, loans, aid or conflict are not taken into consideration.

Findings

Without alternate foods, for a five-year winter, only approximately 10 per cent of the population would survive. The price of dry food would rise to approximately $100/kg, and the expenditure on this food would be approximately $100tn. If alternate foods were $8/kg, the surviving global population increases to approximately 70 per cent, saving >4billion lives.

Research limitations/implications

A nongovernmental mechanism for coordinating the investments of rich people may be possible. Identifying companies whose interests align with alternate food preparations may save lives at a negative cost.

Practical implications

The probability of loss of civilization and its impact on future generations would be lower in this scenario, and the total expenditure on food would be halved.

Originality/value

Preparation for alternate foods is a good investment even for wealthy people who would survive without alternate foods.

Details

foresight, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Keith T. Phelan, Joshua David Summers, Mary E. Kurz, Crystal Wilson, Bryan Wayne Pearce, Joerg Schulte and Stephan Knackstedt

The purpose of this paper is to propose a three-staged approach to configuration change management that uses a combination of complexity analysis, data visualization, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a three-staged approach to configuration change management that uses a combination of complexity analysis, data visualization, and algorithmic validation to assist in validating configuration changes.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to accomplish the above purpose, the authors conducted a review of existing configuration management practices. This was followed by an in-depth case study of the configuration management practices of a major automotive OEM. The primary means of data collection for the case study were interviews, ethnographic study, and document analysis. Based on the results of the case study, a set of support tools is proposed to assist in the configuration management process.

Findings

Through the case study, the authors identified that the OEM used a configuration management method that largely represented the rule-based reasoning methods identified in the literature review. In addition, many of the associated challenges are present, primarily, the difficulty in making changes to the rule system and evaluating the changes.

Research limitations/implications

The primary limitation is that the case study was based on a single OEM. However, the results are in line with other practices identified in the literature review. Therefore, it is expected that the findings and recommendations should hold true in other applications.

Practical implications

A set of configuration management tools and associated requirements are identified and defined that could be used to assist companies in the automotive industry, and perhaps others, in managing their option changes as they continue to move towards full mass customization of products.

Originality/value

The proposed approach for configuration management has not been seen in any other organization. The value of this paper is in the effectiveness of the proposed approach in assisting in the configuration change management process.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2013

Maj S. Fausing, Hans Jeppe Jeppesen, Thomas S. Jønsson, Joshua Lewandowski and Michelle C. Bligh

Previous studies show that sharing leadership in teams offers potential performance benefits across various contexts. This paper aims to investigate moderators of the…

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Abstract

Purpose

Previous studies show that sharing leadership in teams offers potential performance benefits across various contexts. This paper aims to investigate moderators of the effectiveness of shared leadership. In particular, it seeks to explore the moderating effects of team work function – manufacturing versus knowledge team work – and team autonomy.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to test the hypotheses, the authors conducted hierarchical regression analyses and ran moderated two‐way regression analyses using a field sample of 552 employees comprising 81 teams in a Danish manufacturing company.

Findings

Contrary to expectations, the results demonstrated a non‐significant relationship between shared leadership and team performance. However, as expected, work function significantly moderated this relationship such that shared leadership exhibited a negative relationship with manufacturing team performance and a positive relationship with knowledge team performance. Moreover, team autonomy was positively related to performance, and it significantly moderated the relationship between shared leadership and team performance.

Research limitations/implications

The study provides a potentially useful framework for understanding boundary conditions for the effectiveness of shared leadership. However, since the design of the study is cross‐sectional, direct causation cannot be inferred. Moreover, the study took place within a single organization in a Danish context and, therefore, care must be taken in generalizing the findings without additional evidence from further research.

Originality/value

To the authors' knowledge, the study is the first to obtain evidence which indicates that the success of shared leadership may depend on the team work function and the level of team autonomy.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Maj Schoeler Fausing, Thomas Skriver Joensson, Joshua Lewandowski and Michelle Bligh

Shared leadership describes leadership as a collective and reciprocal activity distributed among the members of a team (Carson et al., 2007). The purpose of this paper is…

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Abstract

Purpose

Shared leadership describes leadership as a collective and reciprocal activity distributed among the members of a team (Carson et al., 2007). The purpose of this paper is to investigate variables assumed to be antecedents for this leadership approach. In particular, the authors examine the importance of external empowering leadership and task and goal interdependence for shared leadership as well as the relationship between shared leadership and team performance.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to test the hypotheses, the authors applied structural equation modeling using a field sample of 81 knowledge and manufacturing teams from a Danish company.

Findings

Results indicated that an external empowering team leader and interdependence in the team significantly predicted the extent of shared leadership, which, in turn, was positively related to team leader ratings of team performance.

Research limitations/implications

Overall, the study supports previous findings that the act of sharing leadership in a team may contribute to increased team performance. In addition, the study provides an initial understanding of antecedent conditions for the successful development of shared leadership. However, as the study was cross-sectional and conducted within a single organization, care must be taken in making causal claims or in generalizing the results without additional evidence.

Originality/value

Few studies focus on the antecedents of sharing leadership. The authors obtained evidence, which suggests that the development of shared leadership may depend on the presence of an empowering team leader as well as task and goal interdependence in the team.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 July 2020

Johanna J. Schwartz, Joshua Hamel, Thomas Ekstrom, Leticia Ndagang and Andrew J. Boydston

Additive manufacturing (AM) methods such as material extrusion (ME) are becoming widely used by engineers, designers and hobbyists alike for a wide variety of…

Abstract

Purpose

Additive manufacturing (AM) methods such as material extrusion (ME) are becoming widely used by engineers, designers and hobbyists alike for a wide variety of applications. Successfully manufacturing objects using ME three-dimensional printers can often require numerous iterations to attain predictable performance because the exact mechanical behavior of parts fabricated via additive processes are difficult to predict. One of that factors that contributes to this difficulty is the wide variety of ME feed stock materials currently available in the marketplace. These build materials are often sold based on their base polymer material such as acrylonitrile butadiene styrene or polylactic acid (PLA), but are produced by numerous different commercial suppliers in a wide variety of colors using typically undisclosed additive feed stocks and base polymer formulations. This paper aims to present the results from an experimental study concerned with quantifying how these sources of polymer variability can affect the mechanical behavior of three-dimensional printed objects. Specifically, the set of experiments conducted in this study focused on following: several different colors of PLA filament from a single commercial supplier to explore the effect of color additives and three filaments of the same color but produced by three different suppliers to account for potential variations in polymer formulation.

Design/methodology/approach

A set of five common mechanical and material characterization tests were performed on 11 commercially available PLA filaments in an effort to gain insight into the variations in mechanical response that stem from variances in filament manufacturer, feed stock polymer, additives and processing. Three black PLA filaments were purchased from three different commercial suppliers to consider the variations introduced by use of different feed stock polymers and filament processing by different manufacturers. An additional eight PLA filaments in varying colors were purchased from one of the three suppliers to focus on how color additives lead to property variations. Some tests were performed on unprocessed filament samples, while others were performed on objects three-dimensional printed from the various filaments. This study looked specifically at four mechanical properties (Young’s modulus, storage modulus, yield strength and toughness) as a function of numerous material properties (e.g. additive loading, molecular weight, molecular weight dispersity, enthalpy of melting and crystallinity).

Findings

For the 11 filaments tested the following mean values and standard deviations were observed for the material properties considered: pa = 1.3 ± 0.9% (percent additives), Mw = 98.6 ± 16.4 kDa (molecular weight), Ð = 1.33 ± 0.1 (molecular weight dispersity), Hm = 37.4 ± 7.2 J/g (enthalpy of melting) and = 19.6 ± 2.1% (crystallinity). The corresponding mean values and standard deviations for the resulting mechanical behaviors were: E = 2,790 ± 145 MPa (Young’s modulus), E’ = 1,050 ± 125 MPa (storage modulus), Sy = 49.6 ± 4.93 MPa (yield strength) and Ut = 1.87 ± 0.354 MJ/m^3 (toughness). These variations were observed in filaments that were all manufactured from the same base polymer (e.g. PLA) and are only different in terms of the additives used by the manufacturers to produce different colors or different three-dimensional printing performance. Unfortunately, while the observed variations were significant, no definitive strong correlations were found between these observed variations in the mechanical behavior of the filaments studied and the considered material properties.

Research limitations/implications

These variations in mechanical behavior and material properties could not be ascribed to any specific factor, but rather show that the mechanical of three-dimensional printed parts are potentially affected by variations in base polymer properties, additive usage and filament processing choices in complex ways that can be difficult to predict.

Practical implications

These results emphasize the need to take processing and thereby even filament color, into account when using ME printers, they emphasize the need for designers to use AM with caution when the mechanical behavior of a printed part is critical and they highlight the need for continued research in this important area. While all filaments used were marked as PLA, the feedstock materials, additives and processing conditions created significant differences in the mechanical behavior of the printed objects evaluated, but these differences could not be accurately and reliably predicted as function of the observed material properties that were the focus of this study.

Originality/value

The testing methods used in the study can be used by engineers and creators alike to better analyze the material properties of their filament printed objects, to increase success in print and mechanical design. Furthermore, the results clearly show that as AM continues to evolve and grow as a manufacturing method, standardization of feedstock processing conditions and additives would enable more reliable and repeatable printed objects and would better assist designers in effectively implementing AM methods.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

1 – 10 of 48