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This chapter summarizes findings and conclusions from recent studies exploring the role of motivation-readiness factors in drug abuse treatment. The research focuses on…
This chapter summarizes findings and conclusions from recent studies exploring the role of motivation-readiness factors in drug abuse treatment. The research focuses on populations entering drug treatment, particularly therapeutic community programs in community- and prison-based settings. However, findings from studies in other modalities and from samples not entering treatment are also discussed. Issues addressed include (1) the nature of the motivational concept in recovery, (2) motivation as a variable affecting treatment retention and outcomes, (3) motivation in the treatment process, (4) differences in motivation across treatment populations and modalities, (5) client correlates of motivation, and (6) motivational enhancement. Conclusions highlight the critical role of motivation-readiness factors in understanding treatment-seeking, retention, and outcomes. Key implications are discussed for research, theory, treatment practice, and health care policy. These implications underscore issues relating to the interaction of motivation and treatment processes, the interaction of motivation and treatment demands, differences in motivation among special populations, client correlates of motivation, and self-selection and study designs.
This paper aims to provide guidance on how midstream social marketing can be used to understand and address wicked problems through adopting a collaborative systems…
This paper aims to provide guidance on how midstream social marketing can be used to understand and address wicked problems through adopting a collaborative systems integration approach conceptualised from a macromarketing perspective.
Rothschild’s motivation, opportunity and ability (MOA) framework is applied in this study to understand veterinarians as midstream microactors in the macrosystem of wicked animal welfare issues. Focus group and individual interview data from veterinarians were analysed through the lens of the MOA framework to understand veterinarians’ as midstream microactors within a systems continuum.
The MOA of veterinarians to engage downstream targets – cat owners – in behaviour change are identified. Fresh insights reveal the challenges and barriers to simply focusing on veterinarians as the key microactor required to address the wicked problem of cat overpopulation. Challenges identified include the cost of sterilisation to both owners and veterinary practices, alongside vying beliefs about the capacity of individual veterinarians to persuade owners about the benefits of sterilisation to improve animal welfare. Additionally, insight into veterinarians’ perceptions of upstream strategies to address the problem – in terms of marketing, education and law – expose further complications on where regulation and law enforcement can be integrated in future social marketing strategies to address the cat overpopulation problem.
The application of the MOA framework improves understanding of the concept and practice of midstream social marketing. It provides a practical and strategic tool that social marketers can apply when approaching behaviour change that leverages midstream actors as part of the social change solution.
Research and theorisation in this paper demonstrates an alternative pathway to address wicked problems via a collaborative systems integration approach conceptualised from a macromarketing perspective. Effective long-term change relies on understanding and coordinating a broad macrosystem of interconnected actors along a downstream, midstream and upstream continuum. This starts by understanding the microactions of individual actors within the macrosystem.
So far as the London activities of librarianship are concerned, the Winter opened propitiously when Mr. J. D. Stewart and Mr. J. Wilks addressed a goodly audience at Chaucer House, Mr. Stewart on American, and Mr. Wilks on German libraries. There was a live air about the meeting which augured well for the session. The chief librarians of London were well represented, and we hope that they will continue the good work. It was the last meeting over which Mr. George R. Bolton presided as Chairman of the London and Home Counties Branch, and he is succeeded by Mr. Wilks. Mr. Bolton has carried his office with thorough and forceful competence, and London library workers have every reason to be grateful. The election to chairmanship of the librarian of University College, London, gives the Branch for the first time a non‐municipal librarian to preside. The change has not been premature, and, apart from that question, Mr. Wilks is cultured, modest and eloquent and will do honour to his position.
OUR good custom, as we deem it, to wish our readers a larger measure of happiness and success than heretofore we repeat for 1947. There are many signs in the libraries to give encouragement to the hope that they, the libraries, are now so well established everywhere that the old evils of complete disregard, penury and restriction will not recur and that, gradually but surely, the aims and the purpose for which we stand will be realized. That they may be so for all readers of The Library World is, we believe, the best possible New Year wish.
IT is rarely possible to place on record expressions of appreciation concerning Municipal Libraries. More often than not remarks are heard about these institutions being an incubus and a burden on the rates, merely the haunts of loungers, and so forth. A public‐spirited citizen has, however, come forward at Halifax, and in a most interesting leader in the local paper has paid a splendid tribute to the library service of that town. Speaking of the public libraries, he says: “But in one respect we really do lead, and strangely enough it is the one thing that our local patriots rarely mention, perhaps because the subject is outside their sphere. I refer to our Municipal Libraries, which I believe are the finest, or certainly among the finest, in the country; and as I like to be patriotic when I can, and would rather speak well than ill of anything or anybody, I propose to pay a little tribute to these institutions. But just let me say that if we have finer libraries in Halifax than many much larger places possess, we owe it almost entirely to our Chief Librarian and those who work under him.”
The heady system of high‐pressure Continental air that drifted across the Atlantic and collided with the traditional cyclonic patterns of U.S. literary academe in the mid‐1960s precipitated a “Theory Revolution” that has brought a couple of decades of stormy and stimulating weather to the campus. The collision has produced occasionally furious debate and resulted for higher education in the kind of public attention customarily reserved for athletic scandals; it has kept tenuring processes in turmoil and publish‐or‐perish mills working round the clock.
THE earliest libraries in any kind of community were run by interested members of the community with enthusiasm but no special training. Their communities asked them for very little more than they could get or do for themselves but did not care to find the time for, and because the librarian was one of their own, but no longer functioning fully in their world, the members of the community tended to have, however loyally or gently, a lower opinion of the man and consequently hisoffice. For the failed academic or businessman this was little less than just, but it was quite unjust to the profession of librarianship.
In this number Mr. Thos. Johnston, the Chief Librarian of the Hornsey Public Libraries, contributes an article on the “infected” book question, following up Mr. Jast's note in a previous issue, in the course of which he gives the result of information obtained from other libraries as to the practices followed. This is an excellent example to other librarians, which we hope they will carefully note and act upon. That is to say, when they next send round the usual circular letter (or it may be a postcard), with the usual batch of questions relating to Sunday opening, or salaries, or the caretaker's uniform, or requiring perhaps a full account of the library, “from the earliest period to the present day,” and receive the usual percentage of replies, do not let them pack away all this information in a box or drawer when their immediate purpose is accomplished, there to lie undisturbed till the next librarian comes along, and burns it with other of his predecessor's “rubbish.” This is a selfish policy. Let him send it to us for publication, and so make some sort of return for the expenditure of temper and time the replies have cost the busy men of the profession : the men with nothing to do seldom reply. Then the same questions would not continue to be asked. Having answered once the question, What are your hours of opening and closing in all departments? you would not be required to go on answering it several times a year. Should there be so benighted a member of the profession as not to see our magazine, and should he promulgate the query, a postcard with the simple words, “Buy The Library World—and read it,” will be sufficient. This will at once fulfil the threefold purpose of relieving you, helping your correspondent, and last, but not least, advertising us. Many librarians who might contribute to our columns do not do so, on the plea that they cannot think of anything to write about. Here then is a suggestion. Have they not, stowed away somewhere or other (but, of coarse, carefully indexed on cards), interesting and valuable material gathered in this way, which would require very little working up to be an acceptable contribution to the comparative study of library methods? It is this comparative study which must form the basis of any thoroughly sound and widely useful system of library economics