Search results1 – 3 of 3
Military technology is traditionally shrouded in secrecy. Even joint research between allies can be a marriage of convenience. But with the end of the Cold War and greater…
Military technology is traditionally shrouded in secrecy. Even joint research between allies can be a marriage of convenience. But with the end of the Cold War and greater European integration, the technological landscape is changing, and a closer interface is emerging between military and civilian technologies. A worldwide stagnation in defence spending is accelerating the take‐up of commercial off‐the‐shelf technologies, while in the aerospace sector, the factors of safety and the environment are becoming at least as important as cost.
This paper examines and illustrates the process of setting technical intercommunication standards through a case‐study taken from the electronic voting industry. It begins…
This paper examines and illustrates the process of setting technical intercommunication standards through a case‐study taken from the electronic voting industry. It begins by addressing the large number of types of standards and the many ways in which they are created. The tensions between the speed to market, stakeholder involvement, the mode of production and the legitimacy of a standard are explored. The modes of standards production are then presented in a linear model. The preceding discussion sets the context for a case which presents attempts to standardise the large number of competing electronic voting solutions. The importance of which actors back and influence a standard’s development up to successful adoption is exposed. The vital role government can play in preventing a standards market failure is raised and recommendations are offered on how governments can improve their contributions to standardisation.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss academic spinoffs (ASO) as an expression of the value creation of university technology transfer (TT) investments. More recently…
The purpose of this paper is to discuss academic spinoffs (ASO) as an expression of the value creation of university technology transfer (TT) investments. More recently, scholars have emphasised intellectual capital’s (IC) importance, also for universities in obtaining competitive advantages and by creating value. Such spinoffs are key to regional development, as a primary aspect of universities’ IC.
The authors tested the aim through a sample of the University of Pisa’s spinoffs. The authors measured the value the university’s third mission investment generates on the area by means of entrepreneurship through two different approaches. First, the authors defined a multiplier of the TT investment (university TT multiplier) and then explored the IC components’ contributions to the ASOs’ enterprise value (EV).
The results show that the University of Pisa’s TT investments positively impact the local community through the spinoff system, both in economic terms and in IC. In the long term, these investments can enrich scientific humus and entrepreneurial mindsets.
This is an exploratory study of the University of Pisa’s impacts on the local economy. The results are limited to the context of Pisa and to the TT policy. Another limitation is the subjectivity of the EV estimation.
The results can have some practical implications. The large portfolio of university stakeholders (policymakers, families, students, companies, financiers, etc.) ask for information, especially on long-term results: in a simple way, the multiplier is able to communicate important feedbacks to support their decision-making process.
With the multiplier, the authors give a tool to measure the social enrichment.
In the study, the authors propose a new tool to measure the impact of the investment in TT on the local community.