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Article

Sang Man Kim and Jongho Kim

The purpose of this paper is to review the use of zeroing in the weighted average-to-transaction (W-T) comparison methodology and targeted dumping under the anti-dumping…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the use of zeroing in the weighted average-to-transaction (W-T) comparison methodology and targeted dumping under the anti-dumping agreement by reviewing the WTO appellate body’s rulings on the use of zeroing in the W-T comparison methodology in the USA – anti-dumping measures on large residential washers from Korea (DS464). Although the appellate body has ruled that the use of zeroing would not be allowed in the weighted-average-to-weighted-average comparison methodology nor in the transaction-to-transaction comparison methodology, it has not ruled on whether the use of zeroing is allowed in the W-T comparison methodology prior to the instant case.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper mainly analyzes the WTO appellate body report on the USA – anti-dumping and countervailing measures on large residential washers from Korea’s rulings (DS464) and reviews other WTO appellate body reports on the use of zeroing in anti-dumping measures. This paper reviews the relevant provisions of the WTO anti-dumping agreement and the US Anti-Dumping Act, and also referred prior papers on the use of zeroing.

Findings

The appellate body upheld the panel’s finding that the USA’s use of zeroing in the W-T comparison methodology is inconsistent with Article 2.4.2 of the anti-dumping agreement. As zeroing inflates dumping margins, increases the amount of duty collected, and hinders the expansion of trade in goods. The use of zeroing should be prohibited or permitted only in very limited circumstances.

Social implications

Zeroing, which has been the subject of many WTO disputes between the USA and foreign governments, causes dumped sales to be masked by fair value. The WTO appellate body has consistently condemned the US practice of zeroing over the past decade as an unfair commerce practice. The instant case and this paper will help to stop the practice of zeroing in anti-dumping measures.

Originality/value

The text of Article 2.4.2 does not clearly prohibit the use of zeroing. The paper reviews the WTO appellate body’s rulings on the use of zeroing in the W-T comparison methodology in the USA – anti-dumping measures on large residential washers from Korea (DS464). The appellate body report was very recently circulated, on September 9, 2016. The appellate body has not ruled on whether the use of zeroing is allowed in the W-T comparison methodology prior to the instant case. This paper, first, concludes that the W-T comparison methodology is inconsistent with Article 2.4.2 of the anti-dumping agreement.

Details

Journal of Korea Trade, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1229-828X

Keywords

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Article

JongHo Kim

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the survival capability of Chaoshan people in the maritime world of the South China Sea amidst the changing monetary systems of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the survival capability of Chaoshan people in the maritime world of the South China Sea amidst the changing monetary systems of the rival empires and political regimes from 1939 to 1945. It particularly focuses on overseas Chinese remittance business in Shantou under the Japanese rule. Local societies in coastal China and overseas Chinese communities in Southeast Asia experienced severe hardships due to the Sino-Japanese War, the Pacific War and the Chinese Civil War. As fighting among the rival empires and regimes intensified, Chinese migrant communities straddling between Southeast Asia and South China had to negotiate and adapt to survive these crises, regardless of whether they were government-affiliated or local autonomous subjects.

Design/methodology/approach

This research draws on archival materials to investigate the reactions of Chinese migrant communities in Chaoshan region in times of war and regime change. How did local maritime societies and overseas Chinese adapt to the harsh realities of the wartime? How did the Japanese Empire use Wang Jingwei’s puppet government in Nanjing to control the Chaoshan remittance network? How did the remittance network shift its operational structure in face of a wartime crisis?

Findings

Faced with the wartime crisis and the Japanese occupation, Chaoshan communities used a variety of survival strategies to protect and maintain the overseas Chinese remittance business. In dealing with remittances from Singapore, British Malay and Indonesia, they cooperated with the Japanese military authority and its puppet government to maximize the autonomy of their business operation in the Japanese-controlled East Asian Co-prosperity Sphere. On the other hand, to secure the flow of remittances from French Indochina and Thailand, the indirectly controlled territories in the Japanese Empire, Chaoshan merchants sought an alternative path of delivering remittances, known as the Dongxing route, to bypass the Japanese ban on private remittances from these two regions.

Research limitations/implications

It would be a better research if more resources, including remittance receipts and documents during the Japanese occupation, could be found and used to show more detailed features of Chaoshan local society.

Originality/value

This research is the first one to investigate the contradictory features of local Chaoshan society during the Japanese occupation, an under-explored subject in the Chinese historiography.

Details

Social Transformations in Chinese Societies, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1871-2673

Keywords

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Article

Jewoo Kim and Jongho Im

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new multiple imputation method that can effectively manage missing values in online review data, thereby allowing the online…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new multiple imputation method that can effectively manage missing values in online review data, thereby allowing the online review analysis to yield valid results by using all available data.

Design/methodology/approach

This study develops a missing data method based on the multivariate imputation chained equation to generate imputed values for online reviews. Sentiment analysis is used to incorporate customers’ textual opinions as the auxiliary information in the imputation procedures. To check the validity of the proposed imputation method, the authors apply this method to missing values of sub-ratings on hotel attributes in both the simulated and real Honolulu hotel review data sets. The estimation results are compared to those of different missing data techniques, namely, listwise deletion and conventional multiple imputation which does not consider text reviews.

Findings

The findings from the simulation analysis show that the imputation method of the authors produces more efficient and less biased estimates compared to the other two missing data techniques when text reviews are possibly associated with the rating scores and response mechanism. When applying the imputation method to the real hotel review data, the findings show that the text sentiment-based propensity score can effectively explain the missingness of sub-ratings on hotel attributes, and the imputation method considering those propensity scores has better estimation results than the other techniques as in the simulation analysis.

Originality/value

This study extends multiple imputation to online data considering its spontaneous and unstructured nature. This new method helps make the fuller use of the observed online data while avoiding potential missing problems.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 30 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article

Jongho Roh

The purpose of this paper is to review the current performance management system of the South Korean Government and make recommendations for improvements to its…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the current performance management system of the South Korean Government and make recommendations for improvements to its institutional, operational, and value dimensions.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a literature review, the government performance management system in South Korea is analyzed according to its institutional, operational, and value dimensions.

Findings

The Korean Government’s performance management system has developed distinct features such as strong political leadership, diversity in types of performance evaluation, the institutional involvement of civilian experts, and a mutually cooperative system among agencies tasked with efficient performance management. This paper concludes that the government performance management system requires further improvement in its institutional, operational, and value dimensions.

Originality/value

The paper provides scholars and policy makers concerned with government performance management, with diverse perspectives and suggested areas for improvement.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

Keywords

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Article

John Jongho Park, Jen L. Freeman, Diane L. Schallert and Megan M. Steinhardt

This paper aims to focus on how doctoral students’ emotional arousal influenced their cognition in a challenging online application activity, that of applying for online…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on how doctoral students’ emotional arousal influenced their cognition in a challenging online application activity, that of applying for online Institutional Review Board approval for human subject research. Participants were social science doctoral students. Data were collected in two sessions: a video/audio-recorded work session and a follow-up interview. Results are presented in three themes derived inductively from qualitative data analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors took a qualitative approach to study the nature of participants’ experiences. Participants were 11 graduate students recruited as they were about to submit an application for approval from the university’s review board charged with ensuring the ethical treatment of research participants. These students were pursuing doctoral degrees in education fields in a research-intensive US university. Data were collected in two sessions: a video/audio-recorded “work session” in which participants worked on their IRB application, and a post-interview session that used the video-record for stimulated recall. For the first session, participants were instructed to narrate aloud what they were thinking and feeling during the activity. Camtasia software was used to capture each participant’s desktop and mouse pointer movements. Cameras simultaneously captured video and audio recordings of the participants’ facial expressions and speech. These work sessions, and the subsequent interview sessions, occurred in a small quiet room with wireless access. Analysis proceeded in four phases. First, the authors made a transcript of the work sessions, screen-capturing participants’ faces whenever they spoke aloud, took action as they interacted with the website or showed some sort of emotion. They referred to these freeze shots as frames. The frames allowed us to track the time individuals spent in different episodes of the application. Second, the authors labelled the emotions they saw, with two researchers working together and bringing any discrepancies to the larger research team for consensus decisions. Third, to these transcripts of the first session, the authors connected interview transcript segments.

Findings

Results are presented in three themes derived inductively from qualitative data analysis. Theme 1 indicates that emotions accompanied processes involved in the online application. Theme 2 suggests that new users differed from more experienced users in the amount, valence and intensity of emotions. Theme 3 describes one source of these differences, experienced users’ greater knowledge of the process and equanimity in the face of possible mistakes. These results shed light on emotions as these arise in the course of accomplishing an increasingly common task, that of filling out a Web application that is personally consequential but not user-friendly.

Originality/value

The authors aimed to understand better the emotional experiences of graduate students by moving beyond the more global explorations of graduate students’ cumulative experiences.

Details

Studies in Graduate and Postdoctoral Education, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4686

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

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Article

Shalini Garg and Punam Agrawal

The objective of the study is to identify the themes of “family friendly practices” and to perform a literature review. The research aims to identify the emerging trends…

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of the study is to identify the themes of “family friendly practices” and to perform a literature review. The research aims to identify the emerging trends in the area of “family friendly practices” by carrying out an exhaustive literature review.

Design/methodology/approach

The study synthesizes the literature between the years 2010 and 2019. First of all, 150 research articles were identified by keyword search, bibliography and citation search, out of which 57 research articles were selected on the basis of the most sound theoretical background and maximum literature contribution. The citation analysis method was performed on these studies in order to study the journals, authors by using Google Scholar, ResearchGate, the international database Science Citation Index and SCImago Journal Ranking.

Findings

The author citation count shows that the research topic is still getting recognition and the research in this area is increasing. The finding of the research is that the current research in family-friendly practices has focused mainly on seven topics: availability and usability of family-friendly policy, job satisfaction, organizational performance, supervisor or manager support, work–life conflict, employee turnover employee retention and women’s employment.

Originality/value

The study may provide valuable inputs to the HRD practitioners, managers, research scholars, to understand the recent trends in the field of family-friendly policy. As per the best knowledge of the author, this is the first study on family-friendly practices using citation analysis.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 40 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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Article

Xing Han, Haitao Zhang, Bo Shao, Dongtao Wang, Longgang Cheng, Yadong Guo, Ke Qin and Jianzhong Cui

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of sprue distributions on the flow field and temperature field of the cladding casting process and verify the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of sprue distributions on the flow field and temperature field of the cladding casting process and verify the simulation results by experiments.

Design/methodology/approach

A steady-state mathematic model for the coupling of fluid flow, heat transfer and solidification to describe the process of cladding casting was present. The effect of sprue distributions on melt flow and temperature field was discussed. Based on the numerical simulation results, the cladding billet was prepared successfully. Moreover, the model has been verified against by temperature measurements during the cladding casting process.

Findings

There is a good agreement between the measured and calculated results. The homogeneity of melt flow determines the formability of cladding billets and circular temperature difference affects the bonding of the two alloys. The AA4045/AA3003 cladding billet with no defects in size of f140/f110 mm was fabricated successfully. The alloy elements diffused across the interface and formed diffusion layer with a thickness of 15 µm. The interface bonding strength is higher than the tensile strength of AA3003, indicating the metallurgical bonding between two alloys.

Research limitations/implications

The casting parameters are limited to the aluminum alloy cladding billet in size of f140/f110 mm in this paper.

Originality/value

There are few reports of cladding billet, which are used to prepare condense pipes of automotive engines. The effect of distribution schemes on the cladding casting process is rarely studied.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 26 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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