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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Eun-Suk Yang, Jong Dae Kim, Chan-Young Park, Hye-Jeong Song and Yu-Seop Kim

In this paper, the problem of a nonlinear model – specifically the hidden unit conditional random fields (HUCRFs) model, which has binary stochastic hidden units between…

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper, the problem of a nonlinear model – specifically the hidden unit conditional random fields (HUCRFs) model, which has binary stochastic hidden units between the data and the labels – exhibiting unstable performance depending on the hyperparameter under consideration.

Design/methodology/approach

There are three main optimization search methods for hyperparameter tuning: manual search, grid search and random search. This study shows that HUCRFs’ unstable performance depends on the hyperparameter values used and its performance is based on tuning that draws on grid and random searches. All experiments conducted used the n-gram features – specifically, unigram, bigram, and trigram.

Findings

Naturally, selecting a list of hyperparameter values based on a researchers’ experience to find a set in which the best performance is exhibited is better than finding it from a probability distribution. Realistically, however, it is impossible to calculate using the parameters in all combinations. The present research indicates that the random search method has a better performance compared with the grid search method while requiring shorter computation time and a reduced cost.

Originality/value

In this paper, the issues affecting the performance of HUCRF, a nonlinear model with performance that varies depending on the hyperparameters, but performs better than CRF, has been examined.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 34 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2021

Seong Mi Bae, Md. Abdul Kaium Masud, Md. Harun Ur Rashid and Jong Dae Kim

There was no previous firm-level empirical research to examine cross-sectional differences in climate financing. The purpose of this study is to determine the key elements…

Abstract

Purpose

There was no previous firm-level empirical research to examine cross-sectional differences in climate financing. The purpose of this study is to determine the key elements of the climate investment decision by business management. The study also explores how politics and media influence corporate climate investment decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

The study incorporates a theoretical lens of institutional, stakeholder and media setting agenda to explain the relationship of climate finance with political connection and media influence along with other institutional and firm-specific variables. The sample of the study is collected from the financial sector firms that financed climate/green projects. In total, 178 firm-year observations are documented during 2014–2018. The unbalanced panel data model uses a fixed effect and a 2SLS regression model to test a set of hypotheses. The study uses several alternate methods to check and verify the reliability of the study.

Findings

The empirical findings show that climate finance is positively and significantly associated with Islamic Sharīʿah and media visibility, and negatively and significantly related to financial constraints. Moreover, the empirical results document that listing regulation has no significant influence on climate investment. The political connection plays a negative moderating role between media and climate finance. The result indicates that if a former or current politician is on the board, the media’s positive impact on climate financing diminishes.

Practical implications

The study has significant managerial implications especially to the regulatory bodies, business management and policymakers. The central bank in the developing countries needs to take into consideration the finding of the study promoting climate/environmental/green finance and investment. Islamic Sharīʿah promotes climate finance that would be a prominent indicator for Islamic financial institutions.

Social implications

Politics can deter positive decisions on climate financing such that it negatively influences the media’s role of a watchdog of the society in developing countries. Climate investment would be an important mechanism to reduce carbon emissions and environmental hazards and to solve many social problems.

Originality/value

The study provides first-ever firm-level evidence of the determinants of climate finance and investment that has a significant value in the area of climate change and green investment by the financial firms.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 16 December 2009

Il Joon Chung

After the Korean War, South Korean politics was dominated by national security concerns. Reversing Carl von Clausewitz's well-known dictum, in South Korea, “politics is…

Abstract

After the Korean War, South Korean politics was dominated by national security concerns. Reversing Carl von Clausewitz's well-known dictum, in South Korea, “politics is the continuation of war by other means.” Until the late 1980s, politics in South Korea was far from democratic. South Korea had five direct presidential elections (1987, 1992, 1997, 2002, and 2007) and six national assembly elections (1988, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, and 2008) after the democratic transition of 1987. In 1992, a civilian candidate, Young Sam Kim, was elected president. Young Sam Kim (1993–1998) prosecuted and punished former generals turned presidents Doo Hwan Chun (1980–1988) and Tae Woo Roh (1988–1993) for corruption, mutiny and treason in 1995. Dae Jung Kim (1998–2003) was elected president in 1997. For the first time in South Korean political history, regime change occurred between a ruling party and an opposition party.

In this chapter, the change and continuity of civil–military relations through the fluctuating dynamics of the democratic transition and consolidation in South Korea is examined. A positive consolidation of democratic reform is one that, while securing indisputable civilian supremacy, grants the military enough institutional autonomy for the efficient pursuit of its mission. Civilian supremacy should be institutionalized not only by preventing military intervention in civilian politics but also by ensuring civilian control over the formation and implementation of national defense policy.

In sum, despite three terms of civilian presidency, civilian supremacy has not yet fully institutionalized. Although significant changes in civil-military relations did occur after the democratic transition, they were not initiated by elected leaders with the intention of establishing a firm institutional footing for civilian supremacy. South Korea's political leaders have not crafted durable regulations and institutions that will sustain civilian control over the military.

More than six decades, Korea is still divided. The most highly militarized zone in the world lies along the demilitarized zone. How to draw the line prudently between seeking national security and promoting democracy shall be the most delicate task facing all the civilian regimes to come in South Korea. That mission will remain challenging not only for civilian politicians but also for military leaders.

Details

Advances in Military Sociology: Essays in Honor of Charles C. Moskos
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-893-9

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Article
Publication date: 22 March 2019

Tae Wan Kim

The purpose of this paper is to examine regional voting patterns in South Korea using the results from six presidential elections since the 1990s.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine regional voting patterns in South Korea using the results from six presidential elections since the 1990s.

Design/methodology/approach

A χ2 test was used to determine the municipalities where a regional voting pattern emerged, and λ correlation coefficients were calculated to examine changes in the regional voting patterns.

Findings

The analyses lead to three key findings. First, voting patterns differ in Yeongnam and Honam: regional voting in Yeongnam is getting weaker, it remains strong in Honam. Second, the tendency to vote along regional lines decreased significantly in the election in which the Honam party fielded a candidate with a Yeongnam appeared identity. Third, regional voting patterns declined but then stabilized at a constant level, regardless of the candidates’ local identity, which was confirmed in “Bu-Ul-Gyeong.”

Originality/value

This paper can empirically verify the manifestation of regional voting pattern and confirm the trend. It is possible to derive a condition for suppressing the regional voting pattern.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 21 July 2011

Jon S.T. Quah

The Hanbo (meaning Korean treasure) scandal or “Hanbogate” occurred on January 23, 1997, with the bankruptcy of Hanbo Iron and Steel Company, the second largest steel…

Abstract

The Hanbo (meaning Korean treasure) scandal or “Hanbogate” occurred on January 23, 1997, with the bankruptcy of Hanbo Iron and Steel Company, the second largest steel company and 14th largest conglomerate in South Korea, as its debt had accumulated to US$5.6 billion. Hanbo's bankruptcy triggered an investigation by the Public Prosecutor's Office that resulted in the imprisonment for 15 years of Hanbo's founder, Chung Tae-Soo, for bribing politicians and bankers to pressure banks to extend hugh bank loans to Hanbo. Nine other persons were also convicted including Chung's son, who was jailed for three years for bribery and embezzlement, and Kim Hyun-Chol, the second son of President Kim Young-Sam, who was sentenced to three years jail and fined US$1.5 million (New York Times, 1997).

Details

Curbing Corruption in Asian Countries: An Impossible Dream?
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-819-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2002

Hee‐sook Shin

The issue of the reunification of North and South Korea attracted worldwide attention in June 2000, when the historic summit meeting between the two top Korean leaders was…

Abstract

The issue of the reunification of North and South Korea attracted worldwide attention in June 2000, when the historic summit meeting between the two top Korean leaders was held in North Korea. Although recently the two Koreas have stepped up their efforts toward reconciliation, international scholars and researchers in Korean studies seem to agree that Korean reunification will be slow and difficult. For this reason, they are researching possible solutions to the critical problems involved, and thus there has been an upsurge of published materials on reunification. This annotated bibliography aims to serve as a guide to these materials. Although this bibliography is selective in that it is limited to literature published in English since 1996, it has wide content coverage and includes books, journals, government publications, special reports, research papers, and Websites. Given the complicated and dynamic situation in Korea, this bibliography will be of use to those who are concerned with Korean reunification.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 December 2018

Nam Kwang Kyu

The purpose of this paper is to present the North Korea policy pursued by the Moon Jae-in administration and discuss the possibility of a weakened alliance between South…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the North Korea policy pursued by the Moon Jae-in administration and discuss the possibility of a weakened alliance between South Korea and the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper compares the North Korean policies and the ROK–US alliance under the Moon administration, analyzing the recent inter-Korean and North Korea–US summits, with a focus on the issues of denuclearization and establishing a peace regime.

Findings

This paper reveals that the approach taken by the Moon administration regarding North Korea is similar to that of North Korea and China, and that the ROK–US alliance is likely to weaken should there be any change concerning the North Korean nuclear issue.

Originality/value

Denuclearization takes place in accordance with the agreement between North Korea and the USA, there is a high likelihood of the ROK–US alliance weakening.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

Keywords

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Expert briefing
Publication date: 30 April 2018

Yesterday, South Korea's presidential office added another, claiming Pyongyang would invite global media next month to witness the closing of its Punggye-ri nuclear test…

Details

DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-DB233440

ISSN: 2633-304X

Keywords

Geographic
Topical
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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2019

Kijeong Nam

The purpose of this paper is to explain Japan’s role in the peace process on the Korean Peninsula that began in early 2018.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explain Japan’s role in the peace process on the Korean Peninsula that began in early 2018.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper emphasizes the historical context of international politics in Northeast Asia, rather than power politics or geopolitics. The paper reaffirms the significance of the ongoing peace process on the Korean Peninsula by considering a synthesis of three joint declarations published in 1998, 2000 and 2002 between the Republic of Korea (ROK) and Japan, the ROK and Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK), and between the DPRK and Japan.

Findings

The normalization of diplomatic relations between DPRK and Japan, along with reaffirmation of the joint declaration between the ROK and Japan, and the Panmunjeom Declaration, would be a base for denuclearizing Northeast Asia.

Originality/value

In Northeast Asia, historical reconciliation among the two Koreas and Japan and peace-building between the two parties on the Peninsula are closely linked. Moreover, the three bilateral relationships among these three parties are also the basis for creating a new multilateral security order in Northeast Asia.

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Expert briefing
Publication date: 26 June 2019

North Korea's foreign relations.

Details

DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-DB244761

ISSN: 2633-304X

Keywords

Geographic
Topical
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