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Article
Publication date: 19 January 2021

Linda Anne Barkas, Jonathan Matthew Scott, Karen Hadley and Yvonne Dixon-Todd

The purpose of this article is to examine the role of social capital and higher order meta-skills in developing the employability of marketing students at a UK university.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to examine the role of social capital and higher order meta-skills in developing the employability of marketing students at a UK university.

Design/methodology/approach

This conceptual article, bolstered by illustrative primary data, provides a broader conceptualisation of employability. This is to address the specific research question on how social capital (contacts and connections) is deployed (via capability-based higher order meta-skills) in a UK university developing the employability of a specific group of students. The article is situated in the highly fraught context of teaching excellence measurement schemes [such as the teaching excellence framework (TEF) in the UK].

Findings

The research findings highlighted the role of social capital and higher order meta-skills in developing the employability of marketing students at a UK university.

Research limitations/implications

While the illustrative primary data are not generalisable, as they are limited to one group of marketing students in one UK university; the conceptual development, including a new social capital based definition of employability that incorporated the capabilities, provided by higher-order meta-skills, is widely applicable.

Practical implications

The article has highlighted how the impact of social capital, etiquette and meta-skills, while being “between the lines” of the employability discourse and the metrics of the TEF, explains the differing perceptions of the value of employability initiatives. The article highlights the grey area of between the reasons given as to why some candidates are valued over others. Perhaps no rhyme or reason sometimes, just the “hidden” perception/interpretations of the interview panel of the “qualities” of one candidate over another.

Originality/value

The difficulty in ascertaining the influence of social capital (and how it can be deployed through higher-order meta-skills as capabilities) results in challenges for universities as they endeavour to respond to the data requirements of “learning gain” within teaching excellent measurement schemes such as the UK teaching excellence framework.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 63 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 26 November 2018

Sirak Hagos, Michal Izak and Jonathan M. Scott

The purpose of this paper is to explain how the “objective” institutionalized barriers (of which social, human and financial capital are decisive factors) and the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explain how the “objective” institutionalized barriers (of which social, human and financial capital are decisive factors) and the subjective performance of new migrant entrepreneurs jointly affect their business attitudes and observed behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper’s analysis of individualized performance factors (dependent on how “objective” institutionalized barriers are subjectively construed) – in line with the theory of planned behavior – enables a response to recent calls to embrace complexity and pluralism in entrepreneurship through applying social constructivist lenses. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 32 Eritrean entrepreneurs, and the empirical data were subjected to grounded theory analytical procedures and interpretative phenomenological analysis theoretical coding.

Findings

Six core beliefs mitigated entrepreneurial attitudes independently from the objectivized institutionalized barriers: know-how needs to be acquired formally; available sources of financing are internal, and scarce; market expertise is in the books, rather than in the market; blending in the host country’s culture is uncalled for, and the resulting difficulty of operating in the “foreign” market is a price worth paying; risk is to be avoided at all cost; and strong intra-communal bonds need not entail support for their business activity, rendering external contacts hardly necessary or trustworthy.

Originality/value

The paper concludes with recommendations potentially informing policies and targeted interventions by highlighting that any policy intervention or an attempt at structural change of conditions in which new migrant entrepreneurship unfolds should consider entrepreneurs as “performing” individuals, as well as representatives of wider cultural, economic and social dynamics relating to these “objective” institutionalized barriers.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 5 August 2021

Richard Hanage, Pekka Stenholm, Jonathan M. Scott and Mark A.P. Davies

The purpose of this paper is to respond to the call by McMullen and Dimov (2013) for a clearer understanding of entrepreneurial journeys by investigating the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to respond to the call by McMullen and Dimov (2013) for a clearer understanding of entrepreneurial journeys by investigating the entrepreneurial capitals and micro-processes of seven young early stage entrepreneurs who all exited their businesses within 3 years of start-up.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors analysed empirical data from concurrent in-depth interviews which generated rich longitudinal case studies. Theory-building then led to a proposed “Longitudinal Dynamic Process Framework” of entrepreneurial goals, processes and capitals.

Findings

The framework builds on prior studies by integrating entrepreneurial processes and decisions into two feedback loops based on continuous review and learning. It thereby enhances understanding of the dynamics of new business development and unfolds the early stage ventures entrepreneurs' business exits.

Research limitations/implications

The findings are based on a small purposive sample. However, the main implication for research and theory is showing how the entrepreneurial capitals are dynamic and influenced by entrepreneurs' environment, and also separating entrepreneurs' personal issues from their business issues.

Practical implications

The findings challenge some assumptions of policymakers and offer new insights for practitioners and early stage entrepreneurs. These include having more realistic case-studies of the entrepreneurial journey, recognizing the need to be agile and tenacious to cope with challenges, understanding how capitals can interact in complementary ways and that entrepreneurial processes can be used to leverage them at appropriate stages of the start-ups.

Originality/value

The concurrent longitudinal analysis and theory-building complements extant cross-sectional studies by identifying and analysing the detailed processes of actual business start-ups and exits. The proposed framework thereby adds coherence to earlier studies and helps to explain early stage entrepreneurial development, transformation of capitals and business exit.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 27 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2010

Javed G. Hussain, Jonathan M. Scott, Richard T. Harrison and Cindy Millman

The purpose of this exploratory paper is to theorise and examine gender differences in the impact of financial capital on Chinese firms' growth, and investigate the role…

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6343

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this exploratory paper is to theorise and examine gender differences in the impact of financial capital on Chinese firms' growth, and investigate the role of guanxi (connections and networks) in the process of obtaining finance.

Design/methodology/approach

A structured questionnaire is used to collect comprehensive financial data from 18 women to 69 men, which is analysed empirically.

Findings

Women appear to be no more disadvantaged from obtaining finance than men in China and in some respects appear to be in a better position. Both women‐ and men‐led firms are significantly stronger in relation to having access to enough finance to grow than at the start‐up phase. A majority of participants in this study used guanxi to access finance. Furthermore, the paper finds that guanxi is used equally by men and women, and that guanxi‐sourced finance comprised a significant proportion of the overall capital obtained.

Research limitations/implications

One major limitation of the study is that, of the 87 questionnaires returned, 21 per cent are women and 79 per cent are men and, although the findings are not representative or generalisable, the results do suggest a number of possible avenues for future research.

Originality/value

The paper has illuminated the under‐explored area of the financing of growth in women‐led firms in China. This research agenda is particularly important because small‐ and medium‐sized enterprise finance in China is a key need‐to‐know area, there is a paucity of specific research on financing women entrepreneurs in China and of the phenomenal rise of women's entrepreneurship in China.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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1159

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2010

David Irwin and Jonathan M. Scott

The purpose of this paper is to use univariate statistical analysis to investigate barriers to raising bank finance faced by UK small and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs)…

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18978

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to use univariate statistical analysis to investigate barriers to raising bank finance faced by UK small and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs), specifically the impact of personal characteristics (ethnicity, gender and education).

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual model was developed and the results of a telephone survey of 400 SMEs conducted (before the “credit crunch”) by the Barclays Bank small business research team were analysed. The survey was based on a large stratified random sample drawn from the Bank's entire SME population.

Findings

It was found that education made little difference to sources of finance, except that those educated to A‐level more frequently used friends and family and remortgaged their homes. However, graduates had the least difficulties raising finance. Though statistically insignificant, women respondents found it easier to raise finance than men. The survey confirmed that – and this finding was statistically significant – ethnic minority businesses, particularly black owner‐managers, had the greatest problem raising finance and hence relied upon “bootstrapping” as a financing strategy.

Practical implications

The study makes an important contribution to filling a research gap, given the critical need of policy‐makers to understand differentials between different types of owner‐managers. It brings new insights into its field – access to finance – and with respect, especially, to marginalised groups.

Originality/value

The paper adopts a different approach than many prior studies, with a large sample and robust analysis, to explore a critical need‐to‐know area in a new way – both for policy‐makers and academics in the field of SME finance.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2008

Lynn M. Martin, Izzy Warren‐Smith, Jonathan M. Scott and Stephen Roper

This paper is an exploratory quantitative study aimed at providing the first overview of the incidence of female directors in UK companies, mapped against types of firms…

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4869

Abstract

Purpose

This paper is an exploratory quantitative study aimed at providing the first overview of the incidence of female directors in UK companies, mapped against types of firms. It provides a unique quantitative perspective on the types of companies with boards on which female directors serve.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative analysis of a newly constructed database based on data for all UK companies (using Companies House Financial Analysis Made Easy data) was carried out to explore overall data for board membership related to gender, resulting in a new typology to describe firms with female directors.

Findings

The data supports earlier partial studies suggesting male dominance continues at senior levels. Although female directors represented one in four directors in UK firms, most companies remain male dominated. Women directors are generally found in smaller firms and only one in 226 of larger firms have a majority of female directors. The service sector remains the main focus for female firms, both business services and other services.

Research limitations/implications

The study suggests that at the rate of progress achieved over the 2003‐2005 period, it will be the year 2225 before gender balance in company directorships is achieved in the UK. The study was based on Companies House data, where gender is a self‐reported variable; therefore, considerable work had to be done to identify the gender of directors in order to build the database. This is a limitation for others trying to assess female board membership. The study did not attempt to explain why these levels of female participation are observed – this is a necessary second step following this first analysis of the incidence of women on boards.

Originality/value

The data provides the first comprehensive picture of the senior positions of women across UK businesses as it relates to their positions on the boards of companies.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 21 November 2008

Javed Hussain, Harry Matlay and Jonathan M. Scott

The purpose of this paper is to set out to evaluate the financial education needs of ethnic minority SMEs in the West Midlands region of the United Kingdom.

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1433

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to set out to evaluate the financial education needs of ethnic minority SMEs in the West Midlands region of the United Kingdom.

Design/methodology/approach

A postal survey was used to investigate the financial needs of owner/managers in 64 ethnic minority SMEs and a control sample of 23 non‐ethnic SMEs.

Findings

The results show that owner/managers of micro‐businesses have lower educational achievements as well as higher financial education needs than their counterparts in small and medium‐sized firms. In contrast, owner/managers in small and medium‐sized businesses have relatively higher educational achievements and a better appreciation of the role of financial education. Similar trends were observed in non‐ethnic SMEs in the control sample.

Originality/value

This article makes an empirically rigorous contribution to a relatively under researched aspect of SME research. The authors recommend that government agencies collaborate with leaders of ethnic minority communities to raise awareness of the benefits of education in general and financial education in particular.

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2016

Jonathan M Scott, Andy Penaluna and John L Thompson

The purpose of this paper is to conduct a critical appraisal of how experiential approaches can more effectively enhance the achievement of desired learning outcomes in…

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2040

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to conduct a critical appraisal of how experiential approaches can more effectively enhance the achievement of desired learning outcomes in entrepreneurship education. In particular, the authors critique whether actual learning outcomes can be profitably used to measure effectiveness; and consider how student performance can be evaluated through the twin lenses of implementation or innovation.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors undertook a review of both traditional and experiential approaches to entrepreneurship education. In addition to comparing these approaches, the authors critiqued a number of “taken for granted” assumptions regarding the effectiveness of experiential approaches to entrepreneurship education and made recommendations.

Findings

Although there is a large body of research on experiential approaches towards entrepreneurship education, the authors know little about how these approaches contribute towards the effective achievement of desired learning outcomes. Whilst many authors claim that such approaches are effective, such assertions are not supported by sufficient robust evidence. Hence the authors need to establish more effective student performance evaluation metrics. In particular: first, whether actual learning outcomes are appropriate measures of effectiveness; and second, the authors should evaluate student performance through the lenses of the two “Is” – implementation or innovation.

Practical implications

Whether actual learning outcomes are used as a measure of effectiveness at all needs to be critiqued further. Implementation involves doing things that are determined by others and matching against their expectations, whereas innovation comprises producing multiple and varied solutions that respond to change and often surprise.

Originality/value

Through revisiting the discussions on the art and the science of entrepreneurship education, this paper represents an initial critical attempt – as part of an ongoing study – to fill a gap in entrepreneurship education research. The paper, therefore, has significant value for students, entrepreneurship educators and policy-makers.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 58 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2010

Javed G. Hussain, Jonathan M. Scott and Harry Matlay

The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact that entrepreneurship education can have on succession in ethnic minority family firms that operate in the highly…

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2219

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact that entrepreneurship education can have on succession in ethnic minority family firms that operate in the highly competitive UK economy.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper employs a complex conceptual model of ethnic minority graduates' economic activities and outlines the possible influence that entrepreneurship education can have on succession in their family firms. An illustrative case study is presented of an ethnic minority graduate who returned to work in the family firm.

Findings

It emerges that entrepreneurship education provision in UK HEIs is insufficiently customised to, and focused on, the specific entrepreneurial needs of graduates. Educators should take into account the complex socio‐economic and cultural differences between native and ethnic minority learning environments. Effective entrepreneurship education emerges as crucial to the survival and growth of ethnic minority family businesses in the UK and could contribute positively to ownership transfer in this type of firm.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed theoretical model has not been empirically tested and it is only indicative of the impact that entrepreneurship education could have on succession in small ethnic minority family businesses in the UK.

Originality/value

Although prior research has explored various aspects of ownership succession, this article focuses specifically on the impact that entrepreneurship education can have on succession in small ethnic minority family firms.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 52 no. 8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

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