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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2023

Naushaba Chowdhury, Pravin Balaraman and Jonathan Liu

Over the last five decades, business to business (B2B) marketing has evolved from a transactional model to a behavioral model. This evolution is a consequence of the rise in…

Abstract

Purpose

Over the last five decades, business to business (B2B) marketing has evolved from a transactional model to a behavioral model. This evolution is a consequence of the rise in thoughts of managing customer journeys, services marketing and acknowledging value co-creation amongst stakeholders. The contemporary B2B marketing strategies of relationship, innovation, sustainability and digital marketing that emerge through the literature review are discussed to demonstrate how they add value to the competitive advantage of firms and facilitate co-creation between business partners to help design the customer journey. The purpose of the paper is to discuss how the apparel industry could implement the B2B marketing strategies highlighted and further suggests a framework of value co-creation. The framework shows the journey between business partners followed by the value propositions as service exchange through resource integration within the service ecosystem.

Design/methodology/approach

Through a review of the literature, the evolution of B2B marketing unveils the importance of services marketing and how the marketing strategies discussed add value to the services marketing, this is further explored with propositions of value co-creation between business partners. The propositions are based on the theory of service dominant logic, whereby, the partners in the service ecosystem co-create value from value propositions offered by the business partners in collaboration with supply chain innovation.

Findings

A framework is suggested in the context of the apparel industry that demonstrates the value propositions as a part of the B2B marketing strategy. Through resource integration and collaboration between the business partners, the value propositions in the form of services, are exchanged resulting in value co-creation that leads to the ultimate offering to the end customer.

Research limitations/implications

The service dominant logic theory and the supply chain innovation model are the basis of the framework, showing the value propositions made, are in collaboration between the firm and the supply chain partners. The value propositions in the form of services are exchanged as an outcome of resource integration amongst the business partners resulting in value co-creation which will aid apparel manufacturers differentiate their services and manage customer journeys better. The framework will be further researched through primary research to determine its rationality in the real-world context. The nature of the industry being fast paced, the literature will be outdated in a short span of time and with the vast growth, new strategies will need to be executed eventually.

Practical implications

The paper discusses how the apparel industry can move forward with the B2B marketing strategies highlighted through the literature review and further suggests a framework of value co-creation. This will aid apparel manufacturers to focus their marketing efforts in an era of services marketing and compete better globally with service offerings.

Social implications

The competitive advantage strategies and other key emerging themes of co-creation, value co-creation and customer journeys are highlighted and shows increasing importance to the survival of businesses in an era of service orientation and relationship marketing.

Originality/value

Through a critical literature review of B2B marketing strategies and with the use of theoretical models of service dominant logic and supply chain innovation, the conceptual paper proposes a framework by the authors that allows future research to analyse value co-creation in B2B marketing strategies for the apparel industry.

Details

Journal of Strategy and Management, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-425X

Keywords

Content available

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 68 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Article
Publication date: 1 November 2001

Hong Seng Woo, Doirean Wilson and Jonathan Liu

Utilises findings that relate to Chinese negotiation skills that can be used primarily as a guide for female Western negotiators wishing to do business with the Chinese. Evidence…

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Abstract

Utilises findings that relate to Chinese negotiation skills that can be used primarily as a guide for female Western negotiators wishing to do business with the Chinese. Evidence comes from observations and group discussions conducted with 31 female Chinese managers. Results show that there is a lot to consider when negotiating with the Chinese. The eight key characteristics which form an endemic part of Chinese culture are face, trust, friendship, ambiguity, patience, Guanxi networks, status, and Chinese protocols. Examines the gender impact of these characteristics on the negotiation process and assesses the ensuing implications for Western negotiators. Evidence suggests that first six characteristics are gender neutral while the latter two are gender biased. The women enrolled on the management programmes provided a “birds‐eye‐view” into the interactive behaviour and social upbringing of Chinese women, thus giving an insight into Chinese culture and customs. However, it is imperative to acknowledge that being a successful Chinese negotiator requires an “open minded” approach and heightened awareness of cultural differences.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 16 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2001

Jonathan Liu and Doirean Wilson

Aims to disseminate the findings of an investigation into the perception of women as managers and the obstacles that they face in the workplace. Identifies the issues and problems…

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Abstract

Aims to disseminate the findings of an investigation into the perception of women as managers and the obstacles that they face in the workplace. Identifies the issues and problems faced by women from “multinational corporations” and the impact of operating across national boundaries. The three key issues are age, gender, and family responsibility. Reports on evidence found from conducting “personal interviews” and “focus group” discussions, showing that the ensuing implications have had a significant impact on women in the workplace. Argues that little has changed in terms of employers’ perception of working women so far. The study was supported from funds provided via the European Union under the European Social Fund Scheme.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2001

Jonathan Liu and Doirean Wilson

Discusses the findings of a recent study into the development of women managers, in the field of information technology (IT). Addresses the key question as to why few women are…

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Abstract

Discusses the findings of a recent study into the development of women managers, in the field of information technology (IT). Addresses the key question as to why few women are entering IT. Provides an insight into the perception of women working in IT, and their role in this “fast‐growing” technological area. Identifies four obstacles – gender stereotypes and attitudes, family responsibility, working time constraints, and lack of confidence – that have had a restrictive impact on the careers of female managers employed in this field. Albeit each of these obstacles has an overlap of common characteristics, it was decided that it would be better to explore each in individual context for the purpose of clarity. Also evaluates evidence taken from “personal interviews” carried out with 46 female delegates enrolled on a specialised IT training course, and 17 female managers from various companies. Uses structured questionnaire to elicit and record this data.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 16 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 July 2019

Mouhamed El Bachire Thiam, Jonathan Liu and John Aston

The purpose of this paper is to increase our understanding of the challenges the banking industry continues to face from an ethics standpoint more than a decade after the credit…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to increase our understanding of the challenges the banking industry continues to face from an ethics standpoint more than a decade after the credit crisis. Since 2007, there has been renewed interest in the way professional ethics is integrated within the banking culture. With a public that has become more sensitive towards ethical and corporate governance failures, the banking industry has been at the receiving end of strong ethical criticism. Yet, in spite of the regulatory response to the crisis, ethics is still a major issue in an industry where the corporate governance systems implemented by companies have failed to control employee behaviours, even in institutions branding themselves as ethical banks.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper studies factors inside and around institutions in the banking industry that impact the moral anomie in bankers’ professional environment. This paper applies an ordinary least square regression analysis, preceded by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, to test the hypothesised relations between anomie and the factors proposed.

Findings

The results show that long-term orientation, strategic aggressiveness and competitive intensity do have an influence on anomie. These results are compared to previous research applied in non-financial industries and prompt the strengthening of corporate governance systems in financial companies with aggressive corporate cultures.

Originality/value

The paper therefore introduces the factors that lead bankers to ignore the morals they gained from society and provide a better understanding of the reasons behind the deviant behaviours that caused the crisis a decade ago. It represents a crucial first step for future policymaking that fills an important gap in the financial regulation literature. Indeed, the lack of understanding of the factors dictating behaviours in the industry meant that regulatory changes in the past decade have mostly focussed on technical aspects of the problem (e.g. new capital structure requirements) and produced few answers to address the ethical challenges.

Details

Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1358-1988

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 March 2013

Jonathan A.J. Wilson, Russell W. Belk, Gary J. Bamossy, Özlem Sandikci, Hermawan Kartajaya, Rana Sobh, Jonathan Liu and Linda Scott

The purpose of this paper is to bring together the thoughts and opinions of key members of the Journal of Islamic Marketing's (JIMA) Editorial Team, regarding the recently branded…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to bring together the thoughts and opinions of key members of the Journal of Islamic Marketing's (JIMA) Editorial Team, regarding the recently branded phenomenon of Islamic marketing – in the interests of stimulating further erudition.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors adopted an “eagle eye” method to investigate this phenomenon: Where attempts were made to frame general principles and observations; alongside a swooping view of key anecdotal observations – in order to ground and enrich the study. The authors participated in an iterative process when analysing longitudinal and contemporary phenomenological data, in order to arrive at a consensus. This was grounded in: triangulating individual and collective researcher findings; critiquing relevant published material; and reflecting upon known reviewed manuscripts submitted to marketing publications – both successful and unsuccessful.

Findings

The authors assert that a key milestone in the study and practice of marketing, branding, consumer behaviour and consumption in connection with Islam and Muslims is the emergence of research wherein the terms “Islamic marketing” and “Islamic branding” have evolved – of which JIMA is also a by‐product. Some have construed Islam marketing/branding as merely a niche area. Given the size of Muslim populations globally and the critical importance of understanding Islam in the context of business and practices with local, regional and international ramifications, scholarship on Islamic marketing has become essential. Western commerce and scholarship has been conducted to a limited extent, and some evidence exists that research is occurring globally. The authors believe it is vital for “Islamic marketing” scholarship to move beyond simply raising the flag of “Brand Islam” and the consideration of Muslim geographies to a point where Islam – as a way of life, a system of beliefs and practices, and religious and social imperatives – is amply explored.

Research limitations/implications

An “eagle eye” view has been taken, which balances big picture and grassroots conceptual findings. The topic is complex – and so while diverse expert opinions are cited, coverage of many issues is necessarily brief, due to space constraints.

Practical implications

Scholars and practitioners alike should find the thoughts contained in the paper of significant interest. Ultimately, scholarship of Islam's influences on marketing theory and practice should lead to results which have pragmatic implications, just as research on Islamic banking and finance has.

Originality/value

The paper appears to be the first to bring together such a diverse set of expert opinions within one body of work, and one that provides a forum for experts to reflect and comment on peers' views, through iteration. Also the term Crescent marketing is introduced to highlight how critical cultural factors are, which shape perceptions and Islamic practises.

Article
Publication date: 29 March 2011

Jonathan A.J. Wilson and Jonathan Liu

The purpose of this paper is to address the challenges which the concept of halal presents – when attempting to understand how halal‐conscious consumers behave and what it takes…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the challenges which the concept of halal presents – when attempting to understand how halal‐conscious consumers behave and what it takes to maintain an emotive, credible and authentic brand proposition.

Design/methodology/approach

Interpretive phenomenological analysis and syllogisms, as a basis for conceptual metaphor theory and critical discourse analysis, were employed. Evidence supported by discussions and participant observation method, whilst attending Oxford Global Islamic Branding and Marketing Forum, 26‐27 July 2010, Saïd Business School, University of Oxford – in addition to the empirical data presented by keynote speakers.

Findings

The author asserts that halal‐conscious consumers are risk averse, which drives discerning and high‐involvement behavioural traits. Furthermore, in the face of this, brand managers are still unclear how far they can push more emotionally led brand messages. Finally, the paper presents a halal decision‐making paradigm – as a basis for constructing salient and engaging brands. The halal paradigm is a nub where the perceived importance of halal is brought into the Muslim consciousness. This is a dynamic and cyclical process, whose final verdict is finite and perishable – due to hyper‐sensitivity and environmental factors influencing Muslim perceptions of what is halal.

Research limitations/implications

The models presented synthesise conceptual thinking with primary and secondary data. Further, tests related to specific brands are suggested.

Originality/value

Whilst the author concurs with the general Islamic principle of halal being the norm and haram as the exception, within the halal paradigm of consumption attached to consumerism, an argument is put forward asserting that this is increasingly being reversed. Furthermore, it is proposed that brand theory could view brands as Muslims.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 October 2019

Jonathan Robin Crusoe and Karin Ahlin

This paper aims to develop a user process framework with activities and their variations for the use of open government data (OGD) based on empirical material and previous…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop a user process framework with activities and their variations for the use of open government data (OGD) based on empirical material and previous research. OGD is interoperable data that is shared by public organisations (publishers) for anyone (users) to reuse without restrictions to create new digital products and services. The user process was roughly identified in previous research but lacks an in-depth description. This lack can hamper the ability to encourage the use and the development of related theories.

Design/methodology/approach

A three-stage research approach was used. First, a tentative framework was created from previous research and empirical material. This stage involved three different literature reviews, data mapping and seven interviews with OGD experts. The empirical material was analysed with inductive analysis, and previous research was integrated into the framework through concept mapping. Second, the tentative framework was reviewed by informed OGD experts. Third, the framework was finalised with additional literature reviews, eight interviews with OGD users, and a member check, including all the respondents. The framework was used to guide the data collection and as a tool in the analysis.

Findings

The user process framework covers activities and related variations, where the included phases are: start, identify, acquire, enrich and deploy. The start varies relating to the intended use of the OGD. In the identify phase, the user is exploring the accessible data to decide if the data are relevant. In the acquire phase, the user is preparing for the delivery of the data from the publisher and receiving it. In the enrich phase, the user is concocting and making something. In the final deploy phase, the user has a product or service that can be provided to end-users.

Research limitations/implications

The framework development has some limitations: the framework needs testing and development in different contexts and further verification. The implications are that the framework can help guide researchers towards relevant and essential data of the user process, be used as a point of comparison in analysis, and be used as a skeleton for more precious theories.

Practical implications

The framework has some practical implications for users, publishers and portals. It can introduce users to the user process and help them plan for the execution of it. The framework can help publishers understand how the users can work with their data and what can be expected of them. The framework can help portal owners to understand the portal’s role between users and publishers and what functionality and features they can provide to support to the user.

Originality/value

In previous research, no user process with an in-depth description was identified. However, several studies have given a rough recall. Thus, this research provides an in-depth description of the user process with its variations. The framework can support practice and leads to new research avenues.

Details

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, vol. 13 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6166

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 June 2010

Jonathan A.J. Wilson and Jonathan Liu

The purpose of this paper is to review current literature and practices concerning the usage and consumption of Halal, within marketing and branding. Following this, the paper is…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review current literature and practices concerning the usage and consumption of Halal, within marketing and branding. Following this, the paper is to both stimulate discussions and encourage further thinking within this field.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses inductive reasoning and syllogisms, as a basis for conceptual metaphor theory and critical discourse analysis. Evidence gathered from structured and systematic literature reviews – supported by existing empirical data, anecdotal evidence, personal observations and experience is also used.

Findings

In business, the doctrine of what is Halal, has culminated in the creation of ingredient brands and in some cases forms of co‐branding. However, the Halal's full potential has yet to be harnessed and there remain areas of dissonance and misunderstanding. Reasons offered by the authors are that current applications of brand theory unnecessarily restrict the term Halal and presuppose that there is one interpretation of its meaning. Also, instead of current trends which focus on rate determining steps within functional marketing approaches per se, Halal's competitive advantage is of more significance when delivered via the tacit elements of strategy and management.

Research limitations/implications

As a conceptual paper, research is limited at times by a lack of empirical data and attempts necessitating the exploration of wide‐ranging cross‐disciplinary sources and stakeholder engagements.

Originality/value

Growing market interest suggests its significance to both Muslims and non‐Muslims. Furthermore, whilst research reveals studies looking at “meat and money” (Halal meat and Islamic finance) centred on functional attributes and monolithic consumption, few explore Halal's figurative and brand elements amongst diverse audiences.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

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