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Article
Publication date: 15 December 2017

Tom Bason and Jonathan Grix

In recent years, there has been a decline in the number of cities seeking to host the Olympic Games, with several cities withdrawing from the bid process following…

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3794

Abstract

Purpose

In recent years, there has been a decline in the number of cities seeking to host the Olympic Games, with several cities withdrawing from the bid process following referenda. The debate around bidding have hinged on the costs and benefits of hosting events, with little consideration as to the benefits of a bid itself. The purpose of this paper is to identify the ways in which Olympic bids be leveraged for positive outcomes, regardless of the outcomes of the bid.

Design/methodology/approach

This research employs a content analysis, examining the 16 bid responses to the question in the International Olympic Committee Candidate questionnaire: “What will be the benefits of bidding for the Olympic Games for your city/region, irrespective of the outcome of the bid?”.

Findings

This research found that bid cities do attempt to use the Olympic bid process as a leveraging resource, with four unique opportunities arising from this; national and city pride, Olympism, the formation of networks, and global focus. These provide the opportunities for Olympic bid cities to achieve the following strategic objectives: nation and community building, sport participation, business opportunities, enhancing image and profile, and to push through infrastructural projects.

Originality/value

There has been little consideration as to the ways an Olympic bid can be used to leverage positive outcomes for a city or a nation, and therefore this research contributes to the literature on leveraging mega-events. The research also has practical value, in providing potential bidders with information regarding positive outcomes whether the bid is successful or not.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2017

Richard Edward Oddy and Tom Bason

In 2016, Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal (SBM) published its 100th article. While a number of other journals have been analysed as to their…

Abstract

Purpose

In 2016, Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal (SBM) published its 100th article. While a number of other journals have been analysed as to their content, no such study has yet been applied to SBM. The purpose of this paper is to produce a content analysis examining the first century of SBM articles in order to map out what this outlet has published, and to what extent the journal has achieved the objectives set out in the first issue.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper employs a content analysis approach, with each of the first 100 research papers being analysed and coded by the two authors.

Findings

This study has found that there has been a general focus on sport marketing throughout the first 100 papers, while football is the dominant sport that has been studied. Over the course of the 100 papers, the majority of articles employed quantitative methods, with surveys being the most used method of collecting data. The authors were initially principally based in Europe and North America; however, the geographical location has widened over the period in question.

Originality/value

While there have been a number of other journals which have had a content analysis, this is the first such study into SBM.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2015

Tom Bason and Christos Anagnostopoulos

Under growing public scrutiny of their behaviour, the vast majority of multinational enterprises (MNEs) have been undertaking significant investments through corporate…

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2191

Abstract

Purpose

Under growing public scrutiny of their behaviour, the vast majority of multinational enterprises (MNEs) have been undertaking significant investments through corporate social responsibility (CSR) in order to close legitimacy gaps. The purpose of this paper is to provide a descriptive account of the nature and scope of MNEs’ CSR programmes that have sport at their core. More specifically, the present study addresses the following questions. First, how do Financial Times Stock Exchange (FTSE) 100 firms utilise sport as part of their CSR agendas? Second, how do different industries have different approaches to CSR through sport? And third, can the types of CSR through sport be classified?

Design/methodology/approach

Centred on legitimacy theory and exploratory in nature, the study employed a content analysis method, and examined three types of document from each of the FTSE100 firms, namely, annual reports, annual reviews and CSR reports over the ten-year period from 2003 to 2012. In total, 1,473 documents were content analysed, thereby offering a sound representation of CSR disclosure of the FTSE100.

Findings

From the analysis, three main streams emerged: “Philanthropy”, “Sponsorships” and “Personnel engagement” with the first showing the smallest growth compared with the other main streams. Findings show the general rise in CSR through sport, thereby demonstrating that the corporate world has practically acknowledged that the sporting context is a powerful vehicle for the employment of CSR.

Originality/value

Previous empirical studies have sought to investigate CSR through sport, yet they have generally suffered from sampling limitations which have, in turn, rendered the drawing of reliable conclusions problematic. Particularly, the lack of an explicit focus on longitudinality is a typical limitation, meaning that no conclusions can be made regarding the trend. The study outlined in this paper offers the most comprehensive longitudinal study of CSR through sport to date, and thus contributes to the increasing volume of literature that examines the application of CSR in relation to the sport sector.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Sport, Gender and Mega-Events
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-937-6

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