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Although scholarly inquiry into entrepreneurial stress has existed for nearly 40 years, little is known about how events drive stress responses in entrepreneurs, and how…
Although scholarly inquiry into entrepreneurial stress has existed for nearly 40 years, little is known about how events drive stress responses in entrepreneurs, and how entrepreneur coping responses impact their well-being, relationships, and venture performance. In response to these deficiencies, the authors propose a stress events theory (SET) which they apply to an entrepreneurial context. The authors begin by providing a brief review of existing literature on entrepreneurial stress, which highlights unique stressors and events that entrepreneurs encounter. The authors then introduce event systems theory as developed by Morgeson, Mitchell, and Liu (2015). From this foundation, the authors develop SET, which describes how entrepreneurs react to particular event characteristics (novelty, disruptiveness, criticality, and duration). Additionally, the authors propose that how entrepreneurs interpret events drives coping choices, and that the accuracy of these coping choices subsequently differentiates the quality of entrepreneur well-being, interpersonal relationships, and venture-related consequences. The authors conclude with a discussion of contributions and areas of future research using our proposed theory.
The current study seeks to argue that the constructs of work demand and family demand have been neglected in the work‐family conflict (WFC) literature. The authors aim to…
The current study seeks to argue that the constructs of work demand and family demand have been neglected in the work‐family conflict (WFC) literature. The authors aim to help clarify the definition and utilize direct measures of perceived work and family demand to test main effect, mediated, and interactive hypotheses.
A sample of 698 university employees participated in a comprehensive computer survey that considered various manifest indicators and multiple scales across work and family domains. Moderator hierarchical regression and LISREL 8.0 were used in analyzing the data.
The results indicate that both forms of demand have significant direct effects on work interfering with family (WIF) and family interfering with work (FIW). Both demand constructs partially mediate the effects of three categories of domain variables on the two forms of conflict. Finally, the work demand‐WIF relationship is found to be stronger for those with relatively high family centrality.
A cross‐sectional design was used and may be problematic when examining relationships that occur over time. Further, capturing all scales with a single survey could result in common method bias, which may have inflated the predictive relationships.
Organizations can work to reduce WFC by adopting family‐friendly programs that help employees balance work and family demands. Specifically, this study implies that organizations should find ways to hold constant or reduce perceptions of work and family demand, along with other direct antecedents of WIF and FIW.
This study provides a relatively comprehensive model of antecedents that can be useful in future research. The authors also examine interactive effects of demand and work‐family centrality on conflict using direct measures of perceived demand. Methodologically, the research improves on some past studies by measuring perceived demand directly and by not narrowing our sample to employees who are married or those with children. Hopefully, these contributions will help stimulate continued growth in the work‐family literature.
Previous research indicates that employees reciprocate for abusive supervision by withholding discretionary organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs). The purpose of…
Previous research indicates that employees reciprocate for abusive supervision by withholding discretionary organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs). The purpose of this paper is to investigate the boundary conditions of the negative relationship between abusive supervision and OCBs, by investigating time and money (dyadic duration and pay satisfaction) as potential moderating variables to the abusive supervision‐OCBs relationship.
A sample of 357 bank employees in Kazakhstan was used to test hypotheses.
Results indicate that the negative relationship between abusive supervision and OCBs is more pronounced when employees have been supervised by a particular manager for a longer period of time, as well as when employees are less satisfied with their level of compensation.
Limitations include the use of cross‐sectional data and the possibility of common method bias.
Satisfaction with pay as a moderator may suggest additional costs associated with abusive supervision, as employees may demand higher salaries when working for abusive supervisors. Additionally, dyadic duration as a moderator may suggest that abusive supervisor behaviors over time lead individual employees to withhold more and more OCBs.
Organizational cultures can be adversely affected by reactions to abuse, and abusive supervision represents a growing social problem that may necessitate legislation to protect workers.
This paper contributes to the literature by suggesting that employees appear more willing to withhold OCBs in longer‐term dyadic relationships, and employees' positive satisfaction with pay appears to lessen the negative relationship between abusive supervision and OCBs. Additionally, this study explores abusive supervision using a non‐western sample.
Chester Barnard’s The Functions of the Executive (1938) represents a book of historical significance to the study of management. Using the fundamental principles that…
Chester Barnard’s The Functions of the Executive (1938) represents a book of historical significance to the study of management. Using the fundamental principles that Barnard outlines, an application of these principles is made to the area of strategic management. The analysis focuses specifically on two main areas: the movement from a static to a dynamic model and the role of the environment. Highlights the importance of returning to the work of early writers and their contribution to the future development of management disciplines.
In this paper, we argue that the opportunities created from the recent transformational change in the health care industry have provided the environment for…
In this paper, we argue that the opportunities created from the recent transformational change in the health care industry have provided the environment for entrepreneurship to thrive. As a result, new and innovative organizational forms have flourished particularly when embedded in communities of entrepreneurial activity where networks of experience, access, and social/work relationships exist. The major purpose of this paper is to initiate a theoretical dialogue in which entrepreneurship is introduced as a field of research that can be used to explain how and why health care organizations have emerged and changed into their present forms. First, we present the basic elements for understanding the process of entrepreneurship and how entrepreneurial activity is important to the innovation of new organizational forms. Second, we relate this to the field of health care by focusing on the three stages in the entrepreneurial model: creation, discovery, and exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunities. Third, we argue that the degree of entrepreneurial activity within a given community is the outcome of a dynamic process involving social networks along with positive economic and legal activities that reduce transaction costs and encourage entrepreneurship. To demonstrate this, we focus on the area known as the “health care business capital” in the U.S. – Nashville, Tennessee – and describe the entrepreneurial activity in that city beginning in the 1960s and relate this to the existing theory. We believe this research represents a juxtaposition of the practical and theoretical, so critical in understanding entrepreneurial activity and new organizational forms in health care.
This paper introduces this special issue and initially provides some contextual background to the field of psychodynamics, its significance to organisational studies and…
This paper introduces this special issue and initially provides some contextual background to the field of psychodynamics, its significance to organisational studies and the understanding of behaviour in organizations. The internationally-based papers in this special issue are then introduced and summarised.
Discusses some views of the telecommunications sector in 2010, and some of the critical decisions that will shape it. Shows that any attempt to describe the state of competition in 2010 throughout the USA is doomed – the reality will be more complex. Concludes some parts of the USA may see a highly competitive telecommunications market emerge, allowing consumers to choose the communication services that work best for their applications.