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Book part
Publication date: 25 August 2021

Erwin Dekker

This paper provides a reappreciation of the second edition of Carl Menger’s Principles. It reconstructs his new theory of needs, which for Menger analytically precedes the…

Abstract

This paper provides a reappreciation of the second edition of Carl Menger’s Principles. It reconstructs his new theory of needs, which for Menger analytically precedes the valuation of goods. It is argued that this new theory of needs provides a possible bridge between economics and the natural sciences. It provided important conceptual tools for the interwar work of Ludwig von Mises on praxeology and Friedrich Hayek on expectations and plans. The new first chapter also contains a theory of collective needs, which is contextualized in the broader German-language debate over private and public provision of goods. It is demonstrated that Menger’s approach to collective needs, and the jointness of consumption is in tension with the later Samuelson/Musgrave conception of public goods, and compatible with the institutional theories in this field of James Buchanan and Vincent and Elinor Ostrom.

Details

Research in the History of Economic Thought and Methodology: Including A Symposium on Carl Menger at the Centenary of His Death
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-144-0

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 1996

Stephen Tokarick

An important objective of recent General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)/World Trade Organization (WTO) rounds of trade negotiations has been to urge member…

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Abstract

An important objective of recent General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)/World Trade Organization (WTO) rounds of trade negotiations has been to urge member countries to adopt trade policies that are more transparent in their effects. One example in this regard has been the move towards tariffication of non‐tariff barriers in an effort to make the price effects of trade barriers more readily discernible. This goal remains largely unfulfilled, as many countries continue to implement barriers that are often complicated and “disguised” in their effects. Instead of adopting direct export subsidies, for example, some countries subsidize the use of a specialized input into the production of a final product. While the effect of this subsidization is similar to a direct export subsidy, the effects are not transparent in that the subsidy applies to an input and the effect that the subsidy has on trade depends on the importance of the input in the cost of producing the final product. Furthermore, there is often no way of calculating the effects of these disguised barriers in a straightforward manner.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1986

Neil Dias Karunaratne

This article presents a set of techniques to measure and analyse the structure of the information economy of a country using input‐output methods. Published national data…

Abstract

This article presents a set of techniques to measure and analyse the structure of the information economy of a country using input‐output methods. Published national data bases for many countries fail to identify the information economy and the focus has been on the measurement of conventional sectors such as agriculture, manufacturing and services. However, it is now widely recognised that the information sector is emerging as a major force in the restructuring and growth of many economies in the world. The measurement and analysis of this information economy is invaluable for proper policy formulation in this information age. The article demonstrates the operational nature of the techniques proposed herein, by their application to Australia and a few developing economies in the Pacific.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Article
Publication date: 28 October 2013

Jorge Carlos Carpio-Aguilar and María-Laura Franco-García

This paper presents an analysis of the influence of “Joint Environmental Policy-making” (JEP) in the operation of the company Smurfit Kappa (SK) in The Netherlands…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper presents an analysis of the influence of “Joint Environmental Policy-making” (JEP) in the operation of the company Smurfit Kappa (SK) in The Netherlands, Austria and Denmark (NL&AD). The paper aims to answer the question: to what extend has different levels of jointness and voluntariness of cardboard packaging-chain agreements between federal, governmental and business actors led to different recycling performances within the same company?

Design/methodology/approach

JEP's analysis was framed under the model described by Mol, Volkmar and Liefferink by using information from mixed-methods throughout a semi-structured questionnaire for interviews and revision of relevant secondary data. This is a case of cross-national comparison for which origin and implementation level of JEPs were described per country, in accordance with those stages of the cardboard production chain.

Findings

Jointness and voluntariness amongst other actors from governmental areas and business ranked high for the Dutch packaging-chain agreements with a visible impact in SK's recycling rates. SK in Austria and in Denmark, in this order, had a lower implementation level of JEPs which could be reflected in a lower recycling performance than in the Dutch SK subsidiaries. The context matters, including both political and social conditions. In particular, the role of householders as a last link in the recycling chain. Based on this, the selected countries share some societal characteristics associated with the environmental public awareness and active social participation.

Originality/value

This paper fulfills an analysis of how environmental policy making is affected by the country context within the same company.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 36 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 23 May 2016

Arash Najmaei and Zahra Sadeghinejad

The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the concept of public business models and develop a theory for the process of developing and managing public business models.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the concept of public business models and develop a theory for the process of developing and managing public business models.

Methodology

This research synthesizes insights from various fields into a set of theoretical ideas that lay out what public business models are, to what extent they differ from commercial/industrial business models, and how they are developed and managed by public entrepreneurs.

Findings

Developing and managing a business model is an entrepreneurial task that has been missing from the public entrepreneurship literature. Public entrepreneurs perform these tasks using public and private resources, leveraging public institutional systems, and developing capabilities that differ in several dimensions from private entrepreneurs due to the nature of public goods and existence of quasi-markets where public business models are developed and used.

Research limitations/implications

This chapter opens new avenues for research in public entrepreneurship by suggesting that (1) public business models form the foundation of public entrepreneurship, (2) public business models differ from commercial business models not in their functionality but rather in their scope and design, and (3) public business models co-evolve with public institutions to maintain their legitimacy and value creation potential.

Practical implications

This chapter equips public entrepreneurs with new insights into enterprising behaviors and the dynamism of value creation and capture in public ventures.

Originality/value

The current study represents the first attempt to directly incorporate the notion of business models into the public entrepreneurship literature.

Details

New Perspectives on Research, Policy & Practice in Public Entrepreneurship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-821-6

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 September 2008

Urs Luterbacher and Carla Norrlöf

Is conflict driven by environmental scarcities or an abundance of natural resources? For quite some time, this question has generated a lively academic debate. The…

Abstract

Is conflict driven by environmental scarcities or an abundance of natural resources? For quite some time, this question has generated a lively academic debate. The theoretical literature and empirical evidence it offers are inconclusive. On the one hand, authors such as Homer-Dixon (1994) have emphasized the importance of resource scarcities in explaining conflict. On the other hand, scholars such as Collier and Hoeffler (1998) have tried to link conflict with a relative abundance of natural resources. We believe that the failure to provide a coherent explanation upon which rigorous predictions can be based is due to the neglect of institutions in understanding resource use. What we will try to highlight here is the importance of institutional settings to explain this apparent paradox.

Details

War, Peace and Security
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-535-2

Article
Publication date: 1 October 1994

Edward J. O′Boyle

Mainstream economics views the workplace from the perspective ofproperty rights, maximum efficiency, and profit maximization. Economicresources, including human beings…

375

Abstract

Mainstream economics views the workplace from the perspective of property rights, maximum efficiency, and profit maximization. Economic resources, including human beings, are represented as instrumentalities. Social economics affirms the problem of unmet human material need and the inadequacy of the “invisible hand” solution but does not provide a single paradigm as to how the workplace is reconstructed to meet that need. The key to workplace reconstruction is to shift attention from property rights and personal rights to human material need by recognizing that rights derive from need and that rights are means to the end of meeting need. Describes the seven workplace regimes in which human material need is more salient than property rights, personal rights or organizational types such as sole proprietorship or corporation, and the characteristics of the industrial commons, drawing on Ronald Oakerson′s framework for analysing the natural resource commons.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 21 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 11 December 2004

Stephen P. Jenkins and Lars Osberg

Abstract

Details

The Economics of Time Use
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-838-4

Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Roland Bardy

The purpose of this paper is to present a linkage between performance measurement at the business level and the concept of public goods usage, and a linkage between the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a linkage between performance measurement at the business level and the concept of public goods usage, and a linkage between the micro- and macro-economic aspects of sustainability.

Design/methodology/approach

Exhibiting the essentials of a public goods cost perspective in order to initiate discussion between statisticians, standard setters for business reporting and practitioners.

Findings

Showing what has been achieved in measuring the outcomes of sustainable development efforts and what still needs to be done in order to arrive at aggregate values for national and global commons.

Research limitations/implications

Linking performance measurement at the business level to public goods usage will depend on the co-operation of businesses and national statistics which test the feasibility of monetary indicators for both the micro- and the macro-levels.

Practical implications

For practitioners in both the statistics profession and management accounting who are concerned with measurement of socioeconomic and environmental phenomena, this attempt at integrating sustainable development indicators and the managerial control system of companies might provide a valuable proposition. It is also a useful contribution to the ongoing debate of the value and credibility of sustainability reporting.

Social implications

If businesses make no attempts to exhibit numerically how they contribute to preserving and expanding the societal commons, they will be confronted with ever-growing agitation from pressure groups and they might be bypassed in the discussion on the issue of sustainability parameters that those groups are advocating.

Originality/value

This is the first academic paper that demonstrates a reporting model which unites business accounts and national accounts.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Optimal Growth Economics: An Investigation of the Contemporary Issues and the Prospect for Sustainable Growth
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44450-860-7

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