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Article

Kristie Briggs

This paper aims to examine whether emigration of high-skilled labor creates a positive effect in the home country by generating multi-country joint patent relationships…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine whether emigration of high-skilled labor creates a positive effect in the home country by generating multi-country joint patent relationships between home and destination country-pairs.

Design/methodology/approach

A panel of data that uniquely captures the country of origin of patent applicants is used to assess if and how high-skilled emigration contributes to the prevalence of multi-country joint patents in a country. The analysis is conducted both in aggregate and across sub-samples based on the per capita income level of the home country. Finally, the role of absorptive capacity as a control variable is robustly considered.

Findings

Results suggest that emigration of high-skilled labor positively impacts the prevalence of multi-country joint patent ownership when emigration originates from middle- and high-income countries. Support for such “brain gain” via knowledge sharing in innovation is absent when high-skilled labor emigrates from low-income countries.

Originality/value

The analysis highlights a specific avenue by which the home country benefits from high-skilled emigration. It also provides comparative analysis across home countries of different income levels, which can provide insight into the external validity of papers using high-income country samples of innovative performance when assessing knowledge spillovers.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

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Article

Angelo Natalicchio, Antonio Messeni Petruzzelli and Achille Claudio Garavelli

The purpose of this paper is to understand if and how the technological diversifications of collaborating firms and public research organisations (PROs) affect the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand if and how the technological diversifications of collaborating firms and public research organisations (PROs) affect the technological impact of the resulting joint-patented innovations.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conduct an analysis on a database of 590 dyadic joint patents, assigned to both firms and PROs, registered from 1976 to 2010 to the US Patent and Trademark Office and belonging to green technological classes, as defined by the International Patent Classification green inventory.

Findings

The study reveals that the assignees’ technological diversification has a significant influence on the impact of the patents jointly developed. Indeed, the results show that the most impactful joint patents result from collaborations involving technologically diversified firms.

Research limitations/implications

This research sheds further light on the establishment of R&D collaborations between firms and PROs to jointly innovate. Specifically, it provides a novel perspective to investigate the impact of joint patents, by focussing on the assignees’ technological profile.

Practical implications

The present work suggests that firms characterised by a higher degree of technological diversification are more likely to co-develop patent of higher technological impact, as resulting from collaboration with PROs.

Originality/value

This study investigates the factors affecting the impact of joint patents resulting from collaborations between firms and PROs. In particular, the present research focusses on the effect of a relevant characteristic of the partners, such as their technological diversification.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 55 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article

Antonio Messeni Petruzzelli and Daniele Rotolo

– The purpose of this paper is to investigate the innovation performance of R & D collaborations from an institutional perspective.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the innovation performance of R & D collaborations from an institutional perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conduct an empirical analysis based on 487 joint-inventions developed by 50 US biotechnology firms from 1985 to 2002.

Findings

The authors find that institutional diversity between the partners, as reflected by firm-university partnerships, positively affects the value of their joint-innovation. This effect is reinforced by the firm’s behaviour in searching for knowledge broadly (scope) and in the non-commercial realm (science-based nature). Conversely, as the firm searches for knowledge in few domains areas (depth), the positive effect of institutional diversity is reduced.

Research limitations/implications

The study contributes to literature on partner selection, university-industry collaborations, balance between exploration and exploitation, as well as to research on the interdependence between firm’s external and internal resources.

Practical implications

The study reveals that when firms innovate together with universities, this promotes the development of high valuable innovations. In addition, it emerges that to fully capture the benefits of these collaborations, firms have to develop a wide set of competencies supported by a scientific approach in problem solving.

Originality/value

The study sheds new light on the dynamics favouring the joint development of valuable innovations by focusing on the impact exerted by partners’ institutional differences, as revealed by how norms and rules shape innovation’s modes.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 53 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article

Kristie Briggs

This paper examines the relationship between the originality of a pharmaceutical innovation and its patent quality. Greater patent quality has been shown in the extant…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines the relationship between the originality of a pharmaceutical innovation and its patent quality. Greater patent quality has been shown in the extant literature to enhance market value, which better enables firms to recoup research and development (R&D) expenditures incurred during the innovation process. Understanding how originality improves patent quality can assist policymakers, when determining the optimal length of pharmaceutical patent protection and/or market exclusivity.

Design/methodology/approach

The relationship between originality and patent quality is empirically investigated using a tobit, as well as a zero-inflated negative binomial, estimation approach to account for prevalence of patents receiving zero forward citations. Moderating effects of joint innovation, innovation by a university researcher and innovation by an established innovator on originality are also considered.

Findings

There is a robust and positive relationship between patent originality and quality in the pharmaceutical sector. This relationship is positively moderated by joint patent ownership with a university. As such, innovators that target originality in new drug development (especially those collaborating with universities) should, according to extant literature, see greater increases in their market value.

Originality/value

Policymakers can use information on the originality of a new drug to discern the optimal length of market exclusivity needed to enable the innovator to recoup expenditures related to R&D. Better predictions of the timing for which firms can recoup R&D expenditures will equip policymakers with knowledge about the appropriate timing to introduce competition into the market, which is critical to reducing the price of pharmaceuticals to consumers.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

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Article

Antonio Messeni Petruzzelli, Vito Albino, Nunzia Carbonara and Daniele Rotolo

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how universities' learning behavior (explorative or exploitative) and network structure (weak or strong inter‐organizational

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how universities' learning behavior (explorative or exploitative) and network structure (weak or strong inter‐organizational ties) can affect their capability to collect and diffuse knowledge, and thus to act as knowledge gatekeepers.

Design/methodology/approach

The research methodology is based on the longitudinal study (from 2000 to 2007) of three UK universities (University of Cambridge, London's Global University, and Imperial College London), located in the area of London and selected on the basis of their knowledge mobility. In particular, to evaluate the knowledge mobility for each university, the paper considers the collaborative R&D relationships established by each university, in terms of joint‐patents registered at the European Patent Office (EPO).

Findings

The analysis has revealed that the universities' knowledge mobility is positively affected by both the explorative learning behavior and the establishment of strong inter‐organizational ties. Moreover, results have shown that an increase of the explorative speed can entail a less positive effect of the exploration on the universities' knowledge mobility, since they can become less able to consolidate and implement the acquired new knowledge.

Research limitations/implications

On the basis of these results, the present research provides interesting implications. In fact, recognizing the importance of explorative learning mechanisms, universities should enlarge and diversify their competencies and technological bases in order to be more effective knowledge sources and gatekeepers. Nevertheless, this shift towards new technologies and scientific fields should occur gradually, for instance towards more similar and contiguous technologies, so guaranteeing the necessary strengthening of skills and capabilities. Referring to the universities' network structure, the research suggests the importance of strong inter‐organizational ties as mechanisms that enable the transfer of knowledge. Hence, universities should promote the formation of stable and long‐lasting alliances and collaborations for favouring the creation of a trustworthy environment where knowledge can be exchanged and innovations rise.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the existing literature on knowledge gatekeepers, identifying its main performance, measuring it, and analyzing the impact exerted by two factors, as learning behavior and network structure.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 14 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article

Oguz Cimenler, Kingsley A. Reeves, John Skvoretz and Asil Oztekin

The purpose of this paper is to provide a model that tests to what extent researchers’ interactions in the early stage of their collaborative network activities affect the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a model that tests to what extent researchers’ interactions in the early stage of their collaborative network activities affect the number of collaborative outputs (COs) produced (e.g. joint publications, joint grant proposals and joint patents).

Design/methodology/approach

Using self-reports from 100 tenured/tenure-track faculty at a US-based university, partial least squares (PLS) path models are run to test the extent to which researchers’ individual innovativeness (Iinnov) affects the number of COs they produced taking into account the tie strength (TS) of a researcher to other conversational partners. Iinnov is determined by the specific indicators obtained from researchers’ interactions in the early stage of their collaborative network activities.

Findings

The results indicate that researchers’ Iinnov positively affects the volume of their COs. Furthermore, TS negatively affects the relationship between researchers’ Iinnov and the volume of their COs, which is consistent with the famous “Strength of Weak Ties” theory.

Practical implications

By investigating the degree of impact of researchers’ Iinnov on their CO, college administration could be informed regarding the extent that the social cohesion formed by interpersonal ties affects or drives the collaboration activity that results in COs. When this paper is extended to the entire university, university administration would know the capability of the different colleges, or even the university as a whole, in transforming the ideas embedded in researchers’ networks into a productive work in a collaborative manner.

Originality/value

It is one of the foremost attempts to investigate the relationship between researchers’ Iinnov during ideation phase and their CO. Moreover, this paper contributes to the literature regarding the transformation of tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge at a university context.

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Article

Francesca Michelino, Antonello Cammarano, Emilia Lamberti and Mauro Caputo

The purpose of this paper is to provide a methodological framework for evaluating the impact of open innovation (OI) adoption on start-up ventures at the knowledge domain…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a methodological framework for evaluating the impact of open innovation (OI) adoption on start-up ventures at the knowledge domain level, taking into account the technological specialization and the quality of innovation output.

Design/methodology/approach

The framework employs patent data for investigating joint development activities between start-ups and partners, thus defining an openness degree of R&D. The partner typology and the levels of specialization on the knowledge fields affected by each invention are investigated. The methodology is tested on a sample of bio-pharmaceutical start-ups.

Findings

On average, the openness level in the start-up phase is higher than the consolidation one. Furthermore, the higher the level of openness during the start-up phase, the higher the propensity to collaborate with scientific organizations. And yet, the occurrence of R&D collaborations is positively correlated to the level of specialization on the knowledge fields involved in joint development activities.

Practical implications

OI strategies are valuable for start-ups, particularly in the bio-pharmaceutical industry, since their adoption improves the quality of innovation output. This is particularly true when R&D collaborations are established with scientific entities.

Originality/value

This work investigates the impact of OI adoption on start-up ventures at the knowledge domain level, by employing objective and standardized data. Hence, the methodology can be considered as a first step in developing a useful tool for managers, researchers and business analysts.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

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Book part

Gino Cattani and Daniele Rotolo

Social network theory and analytic tools have been increasingly used to examine the interaction between science and technology. Recently, researchers have paid attention…

Abstract

Social network theory and analytic tools have been increasingly used to examine the interaction between science and technology. Recently, researchers have paid attention to the role of publishing inventors, that is, individuals bridging the collaborative networks between authors (co-authorship network) and inventors (co-invention network). Building on this research, we study how publishing inventors’ structural position in the joint co-authorship and co-invention network affects the quality of the inventions to which they contribute. Specifically, we identify publishing inventors who play a pivotal role in holding the two networks together: their removal not only increases the network fragmentation but also disconnects the joint co-authorship and co-invention network. We define these publishing inventors as cutpoints and find them to contribute to inventions of greater quality. We situate the analysis within the context of the emerging field of nanotechnology. The theoretical and managerial implications of the results are discussed.

Details

Understanding the Relationship Between Networks and Technology, Creativity and Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-489-3

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Article

Haiyan Li

While the importance of “science and technology-based innovation” (STI) and “doing, using and interacting-based innovation” (DUI) innovation modes in firm innovation…

Abstract

Purpose

While the importance of “science and technology-based innovation” (STI) and “doing, using and interacting-based innovation” (DUI) innovation modes in firm innovation performance has been well-established, little is known about how they affect the innovation performance of young firms. The author examines the most effective innovation mode and boundary conditions for the innovation performance of developing companies.

Design/methodology/approach

The author tests the two modes of innovation using data from 159 young firms in China.

Findings

The author’s analysis indicates that a higher level of DUI innovation mode is more relevant to the innovation performance of newly established enterprises. Moreover, the effectiveness of the innovation mode is bound by the networks in which the company operates and interacts. The effectiveness of STI and DUI innovation modes is enhanced when there are high levels of innovation and business network interconnectedness from the technology network partner.

Research limitations/implications

These findings have important implications on innovation research as they highlight the joint effects of innovation modes and quality of network ties on young firms seeking to improve their innovation performance.

Practical implications

STI and DUI innovation modes represent different forms of innovation activities that may affect the knowledge and resources of young firms used to improve innovation performance. Knowing this can help young firms to choose effective innovation mode.

Originality/value

This study makes three contributions. The first is to pay specific attention to the neglected topic of the influence of STI and DUI innovation modes on innovation performance of young firms. Understanding that the two innovation modes offer different methods of gaining knowledge and resources can help young firms choose an effective innovation mode for their business; Second, the author examines the boundary conditions of the effectiveness of innovation modes. Specially, the author examines the moderating role of external networks, which can help clarify conflicting results in this regard. 10;The third contribution is to investigate the importance of network relationships for innovation activities moving beyond the extent of network relationships to instead consider the ability of those relationships to expose a firm to innovative techniques and methods.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

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Article

Yaowu Sun and Xiaoye Gong

Technological standardization can promote the development of complex products and systems (CoPS) (e.g. large aircraft, high-speed trains). Many studies argue that a…

Abstract

Purpose

Technological standardization can promote the development of complex products and systems (CoPS) (e.g. large aircraft, high-speed trains). Many studies argue that a superior network position contributes to improving a firm's ability to innovate; however, few studies have considered the aforementioned line of research as falling under the purview of CoPS standardization. This study focuses on CoPS integrators, which hold the most important enterprise roles in CoPS manufacturing and innovation, to analyze whether the two types of superior positions (i.e. the central position and the brokerage position) help the integrator influence the standardization process in a process moderated by technological complexity.

Design/methodology/approach

Considering the outstanding market performance of the railway transportation industry in China, the abundance of cooperative activities in this industry, and data availability, we adopt integrators from this industry as samples for the empirical analysis in this study. A negative binomial regression analysis with random effects was conducted to analyze the acquired panel data.

Findings

The results show that the central position has an inverted U-shaped effect on the integrator's ability to influence standardization and that the brokerage position has a positive effect. We also find that the underlying mechanism of the two types of network positions impacts the integrator's ability to influence standardization and that it has two modes: knowledge integration in related domains and knowledge integration in nonrelated domains. Moreover, technological complexity attenuates the effect of the central position and strengthens the effect of the brokerage position on the integrator's ability to influence standardization.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the theoretical research on CoPS manufacturing and innovation and complements knowledge-based theory. The results could prove enlightening for integrators facing complex technological environments, allowing them to establish a reasonable external knowledge search strategy and choose appropriate cooperation partners according to their knowledge domains.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 31 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

Keywords

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