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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Kristie Briggs

This paper aims to examine whether emigration of high-skilled labor creates a positive effect in the home country by generating multi-country joint patent relationships…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine whether emigration of high-skilled labor creates a positive effect in the home country by generating multi-country joint patent relationships between home and destination country-pairs.

Design/methodology/approach

A panel of data that uniquely captures the country of origin of patent applicants is used to assess if and how high-skilled emigration contributes to the prevalence of multi-country joint patents in a country. The analysis is conducted both in aggregate and across sub-samples based on the per capita income level of the home country. Finally, the role of absorptive capacity as a control variable is robustly considered.

Findings

Results suggest that emigration of high-skilled labor positively impacts the prevalence of multi-country joint patent ownership when emigration originates from middle- and high-income countries. Support for such “brain gain” via knowledge sharing in innovation is absent when high-skilled labor emigrates from low-income countries.

Originality/value

The analysis highlights a specific avenue by which the home country benefits from high-skilled emigration. It also provides comparative analysis across home countries of different income levels, which can provide insight into the external validity of papers using high-income country samples of innovative performance when assessing knowledge spillovers.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2015

Antonio Messeni Petruzzelli and Daniele Rotolo

– The purpose of this paper is to investigate the innovation performance of R & D collaborations from an institutional perspective.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the innovation performance of R & D collaborations from an institutional perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conduct an empirical analysis based on 487 joint-inventions developed by 50 US biotechnology firms from 1985 to 2002.

Findings

The authors find that institutional diversity between the partners, as reflected by firm-university partnerships, positively affects the value of their joint-innovation. This effect is reinforced by the firm’s behaviour in searching for knowledge broadly (scope) and in the non-commercial realm (science-based nature). Conversely, as the firm searches for knowledge in few domains areas (depth), the positive effect of institutional diversity is reduced.

Research limitations/implications

The study contributes to literature on partner selection, university-industry collaborations, balance between exploration and exploitation, as well as to research on the interdependence between firm’s external and internal resources.

Practical implications

The study reveals that when firms innovate together with universities, this promotes the development of high valuable innovations. In addition, it emerges that to fully capture the benefits of these collaborations, firms have to develop a wide set of competencies supported by a scientific approach in problem solving.

Originality/value

The study sheds new light on the dynamics favouring the joint development of valuable innovations by focusing on the impact exerted by partners’ institutional differences, as revealed by how norms and rules shape innovation’s modes.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 53 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2015

Lara Agostini and Federico Caviggioli

The purpose of this paper is twofold: to analyze to what extent innovation output of R & D collaborations, proxied by co-patenting activities in terms of quantity…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: to analyze to what extent innovation output of R & D collaborations, proxied by co-patenting activities in terms of quantity, characteristics and value, differs depending on whether the engaged R & D partners have a certain type of relationship (allies, suppliers and subsidiaries); to identify possible automakers co-patenting patterns taking into account the differences in the innovation output with their R & D partners.

Design/methodology/approach

To reach the aims, the authors matched two types of data: co-assigned patent portfolio of four automakers and relationship type between automakers and their co-assignees. Matching the company names of the two data sources allowed the authors to obtain the final data set used to carry out extensive descriptive and regression analysis, both on a firm- and patent-level.

Findings

Results show differences in the characteristics and the technological value of patented inventions in relation with the type of collaboration partner; they also support the authors in the identification of four co-patenting patterns (contingent, purposive, watchful and advanced) according to the co-patenting propensity and the presence of a preferred relationship type.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the literature by investigating the presence of differences across the patenting activities of a selection of automakers and their supplier, allied and subsidiary firms. The issue related to patent value represents an emerging area of interest in the field of collaborations for innovation. The methodology constitutes a novelty by matching two different sources and standardizing the company names (“name game”) through an automated algorithm and a double manual check, by searching company web sites and corporate trees.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 53 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Antonello Cammarano, Mauro Caputo, Emilia Lamberti and Francesca Michelino

The purpose of this paper is to provide a patent-based framework for investigating the effect of previous and current open innovation (OI) adoption on firms’ knowledge…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a patent-based framework for investigating the effect of previous and current open innovation (OI) adoption on firms’ knowledge management strategies and type of innovation output.

Design/methodology/approach

Patent data are employed for gauging innovation practices, exploitation vs exploration strategies, specialization vs diversification choices and type of innovation. The study is performed on a sample of 1,280 patents granted to 66 top R&D spending bio-pharmaceutical companies. The year of analysis is 2010.

Findings

The previous recourse to specific innovation practices influences the current practice selection. R&D collaboration, outsourcing and mergers and acquisitions are employed to pursue exploration. Past purchase of patents increases the likelihood to achieve architectural and radical innovation in current activities.

Research limitations/implications

The work recommends the use of patent data to gauge many key elements for knowledge and innovation management. Results exhort scholars to investigate innovation practices at the knowledge domain level in order to detect specific behaviors.

Practical implications

The study provides a methodology for supporting decision-makers in assessing firms’ OI adoption, also performing the benchmark with competitors and R&D partners. Given the high computational effort required for applying the methodology, the authors are planning to give access to the software specifically developed for this study.

Originality/value

The work contributes to the current debate considering the effect of a combination of innovation practices on knowledge management strategies and type of innovation output, with a particular focus on OI activities. Moreover, the separation between the impact of previous and current innovation practices provides useful insights.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 55 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2008

Antonio Messeni Petruzzelli

The paper aims to investigate how proximity dimensions affect the establishment of different knowledge relationships between gatekeepers and other economic actors involved

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to investigate how proximity dimensions affect the establishment of different knowledge relationships between gatekeepers and other economic actors involved in their knowledge‐based networks.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology is based on an inductive research approach, represented by the explorative case study of the Polytechnic University of Turin. The University's knowledge relationships are identified and distinguished through the analysis of its patent joint‐developments, citations, and R&D projects. Then, for each knowledge relationship, geographical, organizational, and technological proximity between the University and the other economic actors are assessed, adopting suitable proxies.

Findings

The data reveal that the University activates collaborative and exploitative relationships with actors characterized by geographical, organizational, and technological proximity. In contrast, collaborative and explorative relationships seem to require actors characterized by more distant technological competencies. Furthermore, the exchange of knowledge by means of non‐collaborative relationships occurs between the University and actors characterized only by technological proximity.

Research limitations/implications

On the basis of this analysis, actors can identify which proximity dimensions assume an important role for activating knowledge flows with gatekeepers. Regarding policy implications, the paper highlights how policy makers should leverage proximities in order to favour and support the exchange of knowledge, hence improving the innovative capability, competitiveness, and attractiveness of regional areas.

Originality/value

This research contributes to shed further light on the nature of the relationships and knowledge flows exchanged by the gatekeepers. In particular, it analyzes how relational attributes can affect the knowledge transfer processes between economic actors.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2010

Antonio Messeni Petruzzelli, Vito Albino, Nunzia Carbonara and Daniele Rotolo

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how universities' learning behavior (explorative or exploitative) and network structure (weak or strong inter‐organizational

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how universities' learning behavior (explorative or exploitative) and network structure (weak or strong inter‐organizational ties) can affect their capability to collect and diffuse knowledge, and thus to act as knowledge gatekeepers.

Design/methodology/approach

The research methodology is based on the longitudinal study (from 2000 to 2007) of three UK universities (University of Cambridge, London's Global University, and Imperial College London), located in the area of London and selected on the basis of their knowledge mobility. In particular, to evaluate the knowledge mobility for each university, the paper considers the collaborative R&D relationships established by each university, in terms of jointpatents registered at the European Patent Office (EPO).

Findings

The analysis has revealed that the universities' knowledge mobility is positively affected by both the explorative learning behavior and the establishment of strong inter‐organizational ties. Moreover, results have shown that an increase of the explorative speed can entail a less positive effect of the exploration on the universities' knowledge mobility, since they can become less able to consolidate and implement the acquired new knowledge.

Research limitations/implications

On the basis of these results, the present research provides interesting implications. In fact, recognizing the importance of explorative learning mechanisms, universities should enlarge and diversify their competencies and technological bases in order to be more effective knowledge sources and gatekeepers. Nevertheless, this shift towards new technologies and scientific fields should occur gradually, for instance towards more similar and contiguous technologies, so guaranteeing the necessary strengthening of skills and capabilities. Referring to the universities' network structure, the research suggests the importance of strong inter‐organizational ties as mechanisms that enable the transfer of knowledge. Hence, universities should promote the formation of stable and long‐lasting alliances and collaborations for favouring the creation of a trustworthy environment where knowledge can be exchanged and innovations rise.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the existing literature on knowledge gatekeepers, identifying its main performance, measuring it, and analyzing the impact exerted by two factors, as learning behavior and network structure.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 14 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2021

Haiyan Li

While the importance of “science and technology-based innovation” (STI) and “doing, using and interacting-based innovation” (DUI) innovation modes in firm innovation…

Abstract

Purpose

While the importance of “science and technology-based innovation” (STI) and “doing, using and interacting-based innovation” (DUI) innovation modes in firm innovation performance has been well-established, little is known about how they affect the innovation performance of young firms. The author examines the most effective innovation mode and boundary conditions for the innovation performance of developing companies.

Design/methodology/approach

The author tests the two modes of innovation using data from 159 young firms in China.

Findings

The author’s analysis indicates that a higher level of DUI innovation mode is more relevant to the innovation performance of newly established enterprises. Moreover, the effectiveness of the innovation mode is bound by the networks in which the company operates and interacts. The effectiveness of STI and DUI innovation modes is enhanced when there are high levels of innovation and business network interconnectedness from the technology network partner.

Research limitations/implications

These findings have important implications on innovation research as they highlight the joint effects of innovation modes and quality of network ties on young firms seeking to improve their innovation performance.

Practical implications

STI and DUI innovation modes represent different forms of innovation activities that may affect the knowledge and resources of young firms used to improve innovation performance. Knowing this can help young firms to choose effective innovation mode.

Originality/value

This study makes three contributions. The first is to pay specific attention to the neglected topic of the influence of STI and DUI innovation modes on innovation performance of young firms. Understanding that the two innovation modes offer different methods of gaining knowledge and resources can help young firms choose an effective innovation mode for their business; Second, the author examines the boundary conditions of the effectiveness of innovation modes. Specially, the author examines the moderating role of external networks, which can help clarify conflicting results in this regard. 10;The third contribution is to investigate the importance of network relationships for innovation activities moving beyond the extent of network relationships to instead consider the ability of those relationships to expose a firm to innovative techniques and methods.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Angelo Natalicchio, Antonio Messeni Petruzzelli and Achille Claudio Garavelli

The purpose of this paper is to understand if and how the technological diversifications of collaborating firms and public research organisations (PROs) affect the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand if and how the technological diversifications of collaborating firms and public research organisations (PROs) affect the technological impact of the resulting joint-patented innovations.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conduct an analysis on a database of 590 dyadic joint patents, assigned to both firms and PROs, registered from 1976 to 2010 to the US Patent and Trademark Office and belonging to green technological classes, as defined by the International Patent Classification green inventory.

Findings

The study reveals that the assignees’ technological diversification has a significant influence on the impact of the patents jointly developed. Indeed, the results show that the most impactful joint patents result from collaborations involving technologically diversified firms.

Research limitations/implications

This research sheds further light on the establishment of R&D collaborations between firms and PROs to jointly innovate. Specifically, it provides a novel perspective to investigate the impact of joint patents, by focussing on the assignees’ technological profile.

Practical implications

The present work suggests that firms characterised by a higher degree of technological diversification are more likely to co-develop patent of higher technological impact, as resulting from collaboration with PROs.

Originality/value

This study investigates the factors affecting the impact of joint patents resulting from collaborations between firms and PROs. In particular, the present research focusses on the effect of a relevant characteristic of the partners, such as their technological diversification.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 55 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 27 August 2014

Gino Cattani and Daniele Rotolo

Social network theory and analytic tools have been increasingly used to examine the interaction between science and technology. Recently, researchers have paid attention…

Abstract

Social network theory and analytic tools have been increasingly used to examine the interaction between science and technology. Recently, researchers have paid attention to the role of publishing inventors, that is, individuals bridging the collaborative networks between authors (co-authorship network) and inventors (co-invention network). Building on this research, we study how publishing inventors’ structural position in the joint co-authorship and co-invention network affects the quality of the inventions to which they contribute. Specifically, we identify publishing inventors who play a pivotal role in holding the two networks together: their removal not only increases the network fragmentation but also disconnects the joint co-authorship and co-invention network. We define these publishing inventors as cutpoints and find them to contribute to inventions of greater quality. We situate the analysis within the context of the emerging field of nanotechnology. The theoretical and managerial implications of the results are discussed.

Details

Understanding the Relationship Between Networks and Technology, Creativity and Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-489-3

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2021

Kristie Briggs

This paper examines the relationship between the originality of a pharmaceutical innovation and its patent quality. Greater patent quality has been shown in the extant…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines the relationship between the originality of a pharmaceutical innovation and its patent quality. Greater patent quality has been shown in the extant literature to enhance market value, which better enables firms to recoup research and development (R&D) expenditures incurred during the innovation process. Understanding how originality improves patent quality can assist policymakers, when determining the optimal length of pharmaceutical patent protection and/or market exclusivity.

Design/methodology/approach

The relationship between originality and patent quality is empirically investigated using a tobit, as well as a zero-inflated negative binomial, estimation approach to account for prevalence of patents receiving zero forward citations. Moderating effects of joint innovation, innovation by a university researcher and innovation by an established innovator on originality are also considered.

Findings

There is a robust and positive relationship between patent originality and quality in the pharmaceutical sector. This relationship is positively moderated by joint patent ownership with a university. As such, innovators that target originality in new drug development (especially those collaborating with universities) should, according to extant literature, see greater increases in their market value.

Originality/value

Policymakers can use information on the originality of a new drug to discern the optimal length of market exclusivity needed to enable the innovator to recoup expenditures related to R&D. Better predictions of the timing for which firms can recoup R&D expenditures will equip policymakers with knowledge about the appropriate timing to introduce competition into the market, which is critical to reducing the price of pharmaceuticals to consumers.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

Keywords

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