This chapter explores the emergence, growth, and current status of the sociology of sport in Canada. Such an endeavour includes acknowledging the work and efforts of Canadian scholars – whether Canadian by birth or naturalization or just as a result of their geographic location – who have contributed to the vibrant and robust academic discipline that is the sociology of sport in Canadian institutions coast-to-coast, and who have advanced the socio-cultural study of sport globally in substantial ways. This chapter does not provide an exhaustive description and analysis of the past and present states of the sociology of sport in Canada; in fact, it is important to note that an in-depth, critical and comprehensive analysis of our field in Canada is sorely lacking. Rather, this chapter aims to highlight the major historical drivers (both in terms of people and trends) of the field in Canada; provide a snapshot of the sociology of sport in Canada currently; and put forth some ideas as to future opportunities and challenges for the field in Canada.
Tobacco sponsorship of sports has increasingly been cast as a public issue on the grounds that it supports pediatric smoking by circumventing advertising restrictions and…
Tobacco sponsorship of sports has increasingly been cast as a public issue on the grounds that it supports pediatric smoking by circumventing advertising restrictions and communicating positive brand information to children(28,31,32). Research on tobacco sponsorship effects on children is as yet inconclusive, but growing evidence suggests that sponsorship is an effective medium for building cigarette brand awareness and image among under‐aged youth. Research in this area has been inconclusive in part because it lacks a unified framework in which the various contributions of sponsorship to brand knowledge and use can be analysed holistically. This paper proposes that the brand equity concept(1,2,18) provides such a framework. The paper reviews previous research on tobacco sponsorship and children, and presents findings from a study that assessed the relative contribution of sponsorship to brand awareness among fourteen year‐olds (n=366) in Dunedin, New Zealand. The value of sponsorship‐derived cigarette brand knowledge among youth is expressed in terms of Keller's(18) concept of customer‐based brand equity. The study found that children's awareness of tobacco brands and tobacco sponsorships varied according to their smoking experience, sports interests and gender. Cigarette brands with the strongest event associations were those that sponsored events that had a high appeal for the youth in the study. The brands with the highest unaided recall levels were those that were prominently shown in point of purchase displays in stores frequented by the youth, and included those with the highest sponsorship profiles. The research demonstrates that tobacco companies can achieve significant brand recall among children through sport sponsorship, as well as interest‐based (lifestyle) segmentation and targeting benefits, and brand positioning (personality) benefits. The findings have implications for public policy and industry practice. In policy terms, if the goal of tobacco advertising prohibitions is to denormalise smoking by restricting the positive promotional imagery of cigarettes, then sport sponsorship and point of purchase displays need to be incorporated into advertising legislation. In terms of industry practice, the fact that tobacco sponsorship reaches and influences under‐aged youth stands to be a matter of concern for any entity that does not want this social burden. It is recommended that corporations considering involvement in a tobacco‐sponsored event should evaluate the reach of the event and the potential effects of its promotions on youth. Where a youth‐interest connection has been demonstrated for the event, corporations should weigh the social risks and costs of the sponsorship. For non‐tobacco related entities these costs include the potential negative impacts of tobacco‐linked event cross‐promotions on their own brands and corporate image.
The purpose of this paper is to develop a systematic strategic approach to handle corrective maintenance onto the failures/breakdowns of construction equipment. For the…
The purpose of this paper is to develop a systematic strategic approach to handle corrective maintenance onto the failures/breakdowns of construction equipment. For the maintenance crew/team, a breakdown code management is proposed, which will provide focused and unambiguous approach to manage any kind of breakdowns in construction equipments.
The past breakdown records of a construction organization in the UAE are considered for analysis. From the failure data, through cause effect analysis (CEA) tools, the components and the breakdown codes namely breakdown main codes (BMC) and breakdown sub-codes (BSC) are formulated. With Pareto analysis, the critical codes are identified and validated through failure modes and effects analyses (FMEA) tools for the critical effect on the affected components. From this identified BSC's further closer failure identification codes namely breakdown symptom codes (BSyC) and breakdown reason codes (BRC) are identified through fault tree analysis (FTA) tools. The approach to modified breakdown maintenance management (MB2M) with breakdown maintenance protocol (BMP) is envisaged.
The study was conducted on four different types of heavy lifting/earth moving/material handling system of equipment and further focused with two earth moving equipment namely dumpers and wheel loaders. Failure analysis is performed and the failure ratio and the component contribution to the failures are identified. Based on the information, the preliminary codes namely BMC and BSC are identified through CEA tools and the BMC and BSC are identified to find the most contributing codes to the maximum number of failures through Pareto analysis. Further the critical sub-codes are further verified through FMEA tools on the severity levels of the sub components due to these codes. The FTA methods are used to identify the closer reasoning and relations of these codes and the further codes namely BSyC and BRC are identified which are the exact cause of the failures. The management of breakdowns is further proposed through MB2M which includes BMP which provides all resources for the breakdowns.
The failure data collected are only pertaining to the Middle East region and applicable to similar regions for similar plant mix in construction companies. The sample equipment is only part representative of the construction equipment. A more robust model can be suggested in the future covering all aspects and for other regions as well.
The proposed methodology and model approach is highly adaptable to similar industries operating in the Middle East countries.
Many authors have studied the preventive maintenance models and procedures and proposals have been proposed. On the breakdown maintenance management of construction equipment, very few studies have been proposed mostly on the cost analysis. This model attempts to provide a code management solution to manage the unpredictable failures in construction equipment through failure data analysis on a construction organization.
“Audiometry in Industry”, published as a discussion document by the Health and Safety Executive, highlights the danger to the hearing of employees, exposed to prolonged high noise levels. The Peters AP25 industrial automatic audiometer is designed to screen the hearing of employees at risk. It can be operated by untrained personnel, enabling an effective hearing conservation programme to be incorporated into a company's health care scheme.
The purpose of this paper is to document the results and the impact of the ESRC-funded High Street UK 2020 (HSUK2020), a project designed to take the existing academic…
The purpose of this paper is to document the results and the impact of the ESRC-funded High Street UK 2020 (HSUK2020), a project designed to take the existing academic knowledge relating to retail and high street change directly to UK High Streets, to improve local decision-making and, ultimately, their vitality and viability.
Through a systematic literature review, and by following the tenets of engaged scholarship, the authors identified 201 factors that influence the vitality and viability of town centres. Through the consensus-building Delphi technique, a panel of 20 retail experts identified the top 25 priorities for action.
Taking a place management approach led to the development of a more strategic framework for regeneration, which consisted of repositioning, reinventing, rebranding and restructuring strategies (4R’s of regeneration). Collaboration with the project towns resulted in identification of the strategy area that would add the most value, and the impact of the 4R’s and the top 25 priorities is demonstrated via numerous town examples.
Knowledge exchange projects, such as High Street UK2020, have an important contribution to make, not by developing even more theory that is unlikely to get utilised, instead their contribution is to bring existing theory into practical use.
There is a danger of allowing competitive analysis to receive less than adequate attention in the marketing‐planning process as it is subordinated to a customer‐driven focus. Clearly important though customers are, they should not dominate marketing strategy and planning to the exclusion of other influential groups, one of these being competitors. With this in mind, a pilot research project was undertaken to gain a better understanding of how UK companies conduct competitive intelligence. From this pilot, a tentative typology of companies was developed to reflect four attributes of competitive intelligence activity: attitude, gathering, use, and location. Further research was subsequently undertaken to corroborate the findings of the pilot study, test the appropriateness of the typology and further develop the classification definitions. The research has resulted in a typology that illustrates a continuum of behaviour on the four strands of investigation. From this, an understanding of CI best practice can be deduced.
The fast food industry has become a focus of media criticism for its apparent lack of interest in environmental and nutritional issues. Demonstrates the scale of the industry′s response and provides an objective assessment of current initiatives which have been specifically designed to improve the image of fast food companies. The greatest momentum for change has inevitably been associated with the major American fast food chains which are introducing more environmentally‐friendly packaging, accessory‐recycling and lower fat products. In the process they are gaining a competitive advantage over smaller domestic fast food companies and this fact alone will ensure the introduction of more initiatives in the future. Care for the environment and for consumer health have consequently become high‐profile marketing concerns.
Asian management systems, led by the so‐called lean production system invented by Toyota and refined by Japanese companies are being transplanted to North America with…
Asian management systems, led by the so‐called lean production system invented by Toyota and refined by Japanese companies are being transplanted to North America with mixed success. A necessary but not sufficient condition for a successful transplant across vastly different cultures, such as from east to west, is the development over time of a third culture which is compatible with both of the original cultures, but transcends them to produce a unique venture culture. Discusses how business partnerships can begin to build such third cultures.
Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…
Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.