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Article

Roy McLarty

The process of small business establishment is examined in a step by step approach with reference to John Williams. Initially, the entrepreneurial focus is considered and…

Abstract

The process of small business establishment is examined in a step by step approach with reference to John Williams. Initially, the entrepreneurial focus is considered and the case study leads to the examination of entrepreneurial traits. Some facts relating to the owners personal situation are given. As opportunities appear they are also presented for decision‐making purposes and these lead into marketing issues such as customer identification, environmental influences and the marketing mix variables. As the case study concludes, it establishes a focus on the future direction of the firm, bearing in mind a record of sales 23% above target for the first year. There are four assignment stages, each of which is free‐standing: the start‐up decision; preparation of a business plan; marketing planning; and planning for growth. The learning experience of this case study is broad and it has been specifically developed to suit a wide range of readers from academic and non‐academic backgrounds.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article

Frances Neel Cheney

Communications regarding this column should be addressed to Mrs. Cheney, Peabody Library School, Nashville, Term. 37203. Mrs. Cheney does not sell the books listed here…

Abstract

Communications regarding this column should be addressed to Mrs. Cheney, Peabody Library School, Nashville, Term. 37203. Mrs. Cheney does not sell the books listed here. They are available through normal trade sources. Mrs. Cheney, being a member of the editorial board of Pierian Press, will not review Pierian Press reference books in this column. Descriptions of Pierian Press reference books will be included elsewhere in this publication.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article

Peter John Williams and Angelique Mary Williams

Since 1992, all levels of government in Australia have pursued a policy of ecologically sustainable development (ESD). Crafted in response to the World Commission on…

Abstract

Purpose

Since 1992, all levels of government in Australia have pursued a policy of ecologically sustainable development (ESD). Crafted in response to the World Commission on Environment and Development 1987 report Our Common Future (the Brundtland Report), the principles contained in the Australian Government’s National Strategy for Ecologically Sustainable Development have been progressively implemented at the national, state and local levels of government. The purpose of this paper is not only to track the implementation of these principles, through both policy and law in Australia, but also to highlight recent challenges to the concept of ESD using the state of New South Wales (NSW) as a case study.

Design/methodology/approach

Beginning with a description of the Australian concept of ESD, this paper first examines the implementation of ESD through both policy and legislation at the national level. The state of NSW is then selected for more detailed assessment, with examples of key State government legislation and court decisions considered. Equal emphasis is placed on both the achievements in ESD policy development and implementation through legislation, statutory planning procedures and litigation, as well as the challenges that have confronted the pursuit of ESD in NSW.

Findings

Since its introduction in 1992, the concept of ESD has matured into a key guiding principle for development and environmental decision-making in Australia. However, in recent years, ESD has been the target of significant challenge by some areas of government. Noteworthy among these challenges has been a failed attempt by the NSW Government to introduce new planning legislation which sought to replace ESD with the arguably weaker concept of “sustainable development”. Apparent from this episode is strong community and institutional support for robust sustainability provisions “manifested through ESD” within that State’s statutory planning system.

Originality/value

This paper provides an overview of the implementation of ESD in Australia within both a broader international context of sustainable development and specific instances of domestic interpretation and application. It extends this analysis by examining recent public policy attempts to reposition sustainability in the context of statutory planning system reform in NSW.

Details

International Journal of Law in the Built Environment, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-1450

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Article

John Williams

The purpose of this article is to discuss the implications of government responses to COVID-19 for older people. Governments in England and in Wales faced complex…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to discuss the implications of government responses to COVID-19 for older people. Governments in England and in Wales faced complex decisions when responding to COVID-19. This paper considers the impact of their actions on the human rights of older people. It argues that there is a case to answer of potential breaches of the European Convention on Human Rights. Although it is too early to come to firm conclusions as more scientific and medical evidence is required, some actions by governments seem to be based on using age as a basis for decision-making. Human rights are complex, and it is important that claims of violations satisfy the Convention, the Human Rights Act 1998, the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights and other international instruments.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper considers the legal framework of the European Convention and its relevance to Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) and older people. Case law, academic research, guidance and media coverage form the basis of the research.

Findings

The governments have a strong case to answer. In defending their positions against allegations of discrimination against older people, they need to produce strong and convincing evidence including medical and scientific evidence that formed the basis of their decisions.

Originality/value

This paper is based on original research into human rights, older people and COVID-19.

Details

The Journal of Adult Protection, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1466-8203

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Article

John Williams

The purpose of this paper is to consider the background to the recent changes to adult safeguarding in Wales as a result of the new measures introduced by the Social…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to consider the background to the recent changes to adult safeguarding in Wales as a result of the new measures introduced by the Social Services and Well-being (Wales) Act 2014 and discuss their potential impact.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper relies on a range of material including reports published by the Law Commission, the National Assembly for Wales and other public bodies. It also refers to academic and practitioner material in journals and government guidance.

Findings

Although the Social Services and Well-being (Wales) Act 2014 introduced many changes in adult safeguarding in Wales, not least the duty to make enquiries, it does not take the opportunity to include statutory powers of barring and removal. The introduction of Adult Protection and Support Orders (APSOs) is a cautious step forward – perhaps it is too cautious. More research in needed on the different approaches across the UK.

Research limitations/implications

At the time of publication, the full effect of the new legislation has not been seen. Local authorities and others are coming to terms with the new provisions. No data on the impact of the new legislation are yet available. The paper identifies future research evaluating the working of the different approaches to safeguarding within the UK.

Practical implications

For practitioners, the new legislation provides opportunities to rethink the approach to safeguarding. The lower threshold for referrals will mean an increase in caseloads and the need to react to both low- and high-risk cases. For authorised officers, the practical issues identified relate to the circumstances in which an APSO may be sought and what can be put in place to protect the adult at risk once the order has been used.

Social implications

For those who experience abuse or neglect, the new legislation provides additional support when compared to the POVA process. The duty to make enquiries and the duty to report will hopefully strengthen protection and, with a lower threshold for referral, enable more preventative work to be done at an earlier stage. Whether the new APSO will make a difference remains to be seen.

Originality/value

As this is new legislation, there is very little analysis of the implications of the Social Services and Well-being (Wales) Act 2014 in relation to safeguarding. This paper presents an overview and, in places, a critical analysis of the new safeguarding duties.

Details

The Journal of Adult Protection, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1466-8203

Keywords

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Article

The action taken by the Council of the British Medical Association in promoting a Bill to reconstitute the Local Government Board will, it is to be hoped, receive the…

Abstract

The action taken by the Council of the British Medical Association in promoting a Bill to reconstitute the Local Government Board will, it is to be hoped, receive the strong support of public authorities and of all who are in any way interested in the efficient administration of the laws which, directly or indirectly, have a bearing on the health and general well‐being of the people. In the memorandum which precedes the draft of the Bill in question it is pointed out that the present “Board” is not, and probably never was, intended to be a working body for the despatch of business, that it is believed never to have met that the work of this department of State is growing in variety and importance, and that such work can only be satisfactorily transacted with the aid of persons possessing high professional qualifications, who, instead of being, as at present, merely the servants of the “Board” tendering advice only on invitation, would be able to initiate action in any direction deemed desirable. The British Medical Association have approached the matter from a medical point of view—as might naturally have been expected—and this course of action makes a somewhat weak plank in the platform of the reformers. The fourth clause of the draft of the Bill proposes that there should be four “additional” members of the Board, and that, of such additional members, one should be a barrister or solicitor, one a qualified medical officer of health, one a member of the Institution of Civil Engineers, and one a person experienced in the administration of the Poor‐law Acts. The work of the Local Government Board, however, is not confined to dealing with medical, engineering, and Poor‐law questions, and the presence of one or more fully‐qualified scientific experts would be absolutely necessary to secure the efficient administration of the food laws and the proper and adequate consideration of matters relating to water supply and sewage disposal. The popular notion still exists that the “doctor” is a universal scientific genius, and that, as the possessor of scientific knowledge and acumen, the next best article is the proprietor of the shop in the window of which are exhibited some three or four bottles of brilliantly‐coloured liquids inscribed with mysterious symbols. The influence of these popular ideas is to be seen in the tendency often exhibited by public authorities and even occasionally by the legislature and by Government departments to expect and call upon medical men to perform duties which neither by training nor by experience they are qualified to undertake. Medical Officers of Health of standing, and medical men of intelligence and repute are the last persons to wish to arrogate to themselves the possession of universal knowledge and capacity, and it is unfair and ridiculous to thrust work upon them which can only be properly carried out by specialists. If the Local Government Board is to be reconstituted and made a thing of life—and in the public interest it is urgently necessary that this should be done—the new department should comprise experts of the first rank in all the branches of science from which the knowledge essential for efficient administration can be drawn.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article

Karel Williams, John Williams and Colin Haslam

The case for stock reduction in manufacturing has been argued byengineers who emphasise the productive benefits. Western managementaccounting does not provide an adequate…

Abstract

The case for stock reduction in manufacturing has been argued by engineers who emphasise the productive benefits. Western management accounting does not provide an adequate indication of the costs of holding stock. This article constructs a framework for identifying and measuring the financial benefits of stock reduction. Within this framework, the financial benefits of stock reduction in Japanese manufacturing in the 1960s are estimated and the productive preconditions for successful stock reduction are identified. The case of British manufacturing where stock levels have not been reduced is considered. Financial savings from stock reduction cannot be realised in Britain because the productive preconditions are not satisfied when output growth is slow and management has poor control over the production process.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 9 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article

Bruce D. Jones and John R. Williams

Volume mapping of large spherical particles to a Cartesian grid with smaller grid elements is typically required in application of simple immersed boundary conditions in…

Abstract

Purpose

Volume mapping of large spherical particles to a Cartesian grid with smaller grid elements is typically required in application of simple immersed boundary conditions in coupled engineering simulations. However, there exists no unique analytical solution to computation of the volume of intersection between spheres and cubes. The purpose of this paper is to determine a suitable solution to this problem depending on the required level of accuracy.

Design/methodology/approach

In this work, existing numerical techniques for computing intersection volume are reviewed and compared in terms of accuracy and performance. In addition to this, a more efficient linear relationship is proposed and included in this comparison.

Findings

The authors find in this work that a simple linear relationship is both acceptably accurate and more computationally efficient than the contemporary techniques.

Originality/value

This simple linear approach may be applied to accurately compute solutions to fluid-particle systems with very large numbers of particles.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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Article

Lucy Bailey and Simon John Williams

The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the authors’ experiences of conducting research with refugees and asylum seekers in Malaysia over multiple research projects in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the authors’ experiences of conducting research with refugees and asylum seekers in Malaysia over multiple research projects in order to identify limitations to current procedures for receiving ethical approval for a study. It argues that the moral complexity of working with marginalized and excluded groups is not reflected in existing approaches.

Design/methodology/approach

Ensuring that research is ethical is integral to any empirical study, using any research design. Procedures for ensuring ethics have been developed by professional bodies across many academic fields, predominantly drawing on western legal frameworks and conceptions of agency. However, these procedures may not have applicability to certain cultural, social and political settings. The discussion in this paper focuses on devising ethical approaches for research participants from marginalized and excluded communities in diverse parts of the world, including those with no possibility of legal recourse.

Findings

Problems with the use of established procedures for four aspects of ethical research are identified, namely, access and gatekeepers; consent; reciprocity; and confidentiality.

Originality/value

The paper develops a framework for continuous ethical reflexivity. It argues that this framework should replace the established procedural approach to ethics, approved by an Institutional Review Board or ethics committee. Instead, the IRB should assign an ethical mentor who is jointly responsible with the researcher for ensuring research ethics through the use of the framework.

Details

Qualitative Research Journal, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1443-9883

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Article

John Andrew Williams III and Tehia Starker Glass

Teacher effectiveness in diverse school environments depends highly on the multicultural education courses provided by Educator Preparation Programs (EPP). Research…

Abstract

Purpose

Teacher effectiveness in diverse school environments depends highly on the multicultural education courses provided by Educator Preparation Programs (EPP). Research measuring new teachers’ (i.e. teachers having 0-3 years of teaching experience) effectiveness as a result of EPPs’ multicultural education courses is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine if any association occurred between the number of multicultural courses offered to pre-service teacher candidates by EPPs and their graduates rating of effectiveness, as it pertains to creating a culturally diverse classroom environment.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data from the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction (NCDPI) and public EPPs course catalogs for North Carolina, this descriptive study investigates multicultural education course offerings and recent teacher graduate data for North Carolina for 2015, as it pertains to creating culturally diverse learning environments for students of color.

Findings

The results indicate that multiple EPPs in North Carolina are not providing multicultural courses for their pre-service teachers, and that novice teachers in North Carolina are lacking the ability to produce diverse learning environments for students of color at a high capacity as defined by the North Carolina Teacher Effectiveness definition.

Research limitations/implications

Data were retrieved from 2015. In the current year, EPPs could have boosted their offerings of multicultural courses since that time.

Social implications

It is anticipated that the lack course offerings by EPPs will directly reflect new teachers’ ability to create respectful learning environment for students of color, suggesting that EPPs may be counterproductive towards teacher candidates’ understanding of race in the classroom.

Originality/value

This study’s originality exists in its ability to begin to connect new teachers’ productivity with regards for promoting diversity or multiculturalism and the multicultural courses offered by EPPs.

Details

Journal for Multicultural Education, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-535X

Keywords

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