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Article
Publication date: 16 April 2019

Thea Freese, Michael Gille and John Struthers

Increased political measures to protect the marine environment addresses a shipping industry characterised by strained financial resources, excess supply of capacity and…

Abstract

Purpose

Increased political measures to protect the marine environment addresses a shipping industry characterised by strained financial resources, excess supply of capacity and consolidation. In addition, 5-15 per cent of industry participants are believed by shipping experts to neglect rules on vessel-source pollution to stay competitive within their industry and vis-à-vis other transport modes. This study aims to identify and quantify cost effects of maritime environmental legislation, to relate these with company characteristics and to investigate the impact of regulatory compliance.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed-methods design was used to develop both a theoretical model of compliance costs effects and to quantify effect sizes. In total, 12 in-depth exploratory expert interviews were conducted and analysed. A theoretical framework emerged, which was evaluated, strengthened and fed with quantitative data from questionnaire data by 120 shipping companies. Partial least squares analysis was conducted to determine compliance cost effects.

Findings

It was found that organisational capacities played a significant role in determining compliance behaviour. Exterior determinants showed no significant correlation with legal compliance. This is a striking result, as it does not support achieving legal compliance with measures of strong enforcement.

Social implications

European transport policy-making depends on scientifically sound studies on the impact of policy. An in-depth impact assessment on environmental legislation for the maritime industry highlights mechanisms applicable to environmental policy-making in transport and helps in building policy that considers compliance concerns, company characteristics and the interconnectedness of different transport modes for a sound response to the tragedy of the commons.

Originality/value

Originality lies in the inductive development of a comprehensive theory on shipping companies’ legal compliance behaviour and the empirical testing of this theory. Further value is derived from applying a sequential mixed-methods approach to the research problem, showing both the worth and challenge in combining different methodologies to achieve sound research results.

Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Sushil Mohan, Firdu Gemech, Alan Reeves and John Struthers

This paper aims to estimate the welfare effects for Ethiopian coffee producers from eliminating coffee price volatility.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to estimate the welfare effects for Ethiopian coffee producers from eliminating coffee price volatility.

Design/methodology/approach

To estimate volatility, the generalised autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity technique is applied to monthly coffee prices in Ethiopia for the period 1976-2012. To distinguish between the unpredictable and predictable components of volatility, we obtain separate estimates of the conditional and unconditional variance of the residual. This is combined with estimates of the coefficient of relative risk aversion to measure the welfare effects from eliminating the unpredictable component of price volatility.

Findings

A key finding is that the welfare gain from eliminating coffee price volatility is small; the gain per producer comes to a meagre US$0.76 in a year.

Originality/value

This has important policy implications for the efficacy of price stabilisation mechanisms for coffee producers, i.e. any attempt to eliminate coffee price volatility at a cost may not be a preferred outcome for Ethiopian producers. The contribution of the paper lies in using the unconditional variance, as it more truly reflects price risk faced by coffee producers without overestimating it.

Details

Qualitative Research in Financial Markets, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4179

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 October 2017

Dina Modestus Nziku and John Joseph Struthers

The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework which combines the strength of weak ties (SWT) concept with an innovative taxonomy for mitigating…

1218

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework which combines the strength of weak ties (SWT) concept with an innovative taxonomy for mitigating principal-agent (P-A) conflicts. The taxonomy highlights the mechanisms through which African women can overcome the obstacles faced when setting up businesses.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper discusses the role of “weak ties” networks in entrepreneurial activities and integrates the concept with the key parameters of the P-A paradigm. The aim is to develop a taxonomy (or scorecard) for mitigating the challenges faced by women entrepreneurs in Africa from a P-A perspective. Six P-A parameters are analysed, namely, attitudes towards risk; behaviour-based vs targets-based contracts; asymmetric information; risk-sharing; transaction costs; and verification and monitoring costs.

Findings

With the aid of the taxonomy developed in the paper, the authors analyse the channels through which “SWT” networks may impact in mitigating the problems arising from the P-A paradigm. Some implications for women entrepreneurs in Africa are highlighted.

Research limitations/implications

The current conceptual study suggests that the “SWT” concept can be used by African women entrepreneurs to mitigate P-A problems. The authors argue that the original P-A taxonomy developed in the paper fills a conceptual research gap in the existing literature. Embedding the SWT concept within a P-A framework will facilitate further research not only to understand African women entrepreneurs’ attitudes (and responses) towards risk and uncertainty, but this will also facilitate greater understanding of the importance women attach to the role of incentives within their businesses.

Practical implications

The taxonomy presents new insights for understanding the most serious constraints that hinder women entrepreneurs in Africa. The taxonomy will be the basis for a follow-up empirical paper on selected African countries.

Originality/value

The originality of this study lies in the development of an innovative taxonomy which highlights the role of “SWT” social networks towards mitigating the P-A problem among African women entrepreneurs. The paper makes a significant contribution to the literature from a conceptual perspective.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 11 June 2021

John Struthers and Dina Modestus Nziku

Within developing countries, particularly in Africa, there is an emerging literature which highlights the unique obstacles faced by women entrepreneurs who start and…

Abstract

Within developing countries, particularly in Africa, there is an emerging literature which highlights the unique obstacles faced by women entrepreneurs who start and develop their own businesses (De Vita, Mari, & Poggesi, 2014; Jamali, 2009; Minniti & Naude, 2010; Naude & Havenga, 2005; Nziku & Struthers, 2018). A key objective of this chapter is to critically appraise some of the conceptual approaches adopted in this literature. In so doing, the authors revisit a seminal paper first developed by Granovetter (1973) which suggested that female entrepreneurs, instead of being disadvantaged by the so-called ‘weak ties’ that bind their business networks, actually enjoy compensating benefits which Granovetter referred to as the strength of weak ties (SWT). Building on the conceptual work of Nziku and Struthers (2018) which developed an innovative taxonomy for analysing the SWT concept within a Principal-Agent (P-A) paradigm, the chapter will set out new insights which challenge some of the assumptions of the extant entrepreneurship literature. In particular, that women are inherently more risk averse in their business decision making than men. The theoretical context for this will be derived from a behavioural economics methodology first developed by Kahneman and Tversky (1979). They introduced the concept of loss aversion as a more realistic approach to attitudes towards risk on the part of entrepreneurs than risk aversion. The chapter contends that the loss aversion perspective may be more appropriate to the decision-making frame adopted by female entrepreneurs, especially in the context of Africa as well as in other developing regions of the world. The chapter will therefore suggest that such an approach can yield fresh insights on the topic of female entrepreneurship which the extant literature heretofore has not addressed, though this will have to be subsequently tested empirically.

Details

Enterprise and Economic Development in Africa
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-323-9

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Enterprise and Economic Development in Africa
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-323-9

Book part
Publication date: 11 June 2021

Dina Modestus Nziku and John Struthers

Rural farm and non-farm based entrepreneurial activities within Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) play significant roles in job creation as well as food security for the majority…

Abstract

Rural farm and non-farm based entrepreneurial activities within Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) play significant roles in job creation as well as food security for the majority of rural dwelling citizens (UNCTAD, 2018). This chapter examines the policies and strategies for supporting both farm and non-farm entrepreneurial activities within rural communities in SSA. In order to achieve this, the authors have completed a systematic literature review of both conceptual and empirical work on the role of policies and strategies for rural entrepreneurship in selected SSA, namely Ethiopia, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, and the United Republic of Tanzania (URT). This was completed alongside an assessment of the constraints and potential opportunities in order to stimulate linkages between rural entrepreneurship and structural economic transformation including the potential roles of both farm and non-farm based entrepreneurial activities. Key linkages between rural farm and non-farm based entrepreneurial activities are emphasised The chapter also highlights mechanisms through which governments and private sectors can work together for the maximisation of available opportunities and best practices that rural entrepreneurship can offer for job creation among rural communities in SSA.

Details

Enterprise and Economic Development in Africa
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-323-9

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 11 June 2021

Abstract

Details

Enterprise and Economic Development in Africa
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-323-9

Book part
Publication date: 25 September 2020

Moira Hulme

This chapter examines the inauguration of the university study of Education in Scotland and its relation to teacher education in the late nineteenth and early twentieth…

Abstract

This chapter examines the inauguration of the university study of Education in Scotland and its relation to teacher education in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The chapter outlines moves to establish Education as a disciplinary field in higher education and the junctures at which this movement aligns with and is in tension with concurrent moves to advance teaching as a profession. Academisation and professionalisation are the twin poles of this debate. This is not a parochial or obsolete debate. The place of teacher preparation in higher education has been the focus of sustained discussion across Anglophone nations. Three examples – the inauguration of chairs and lectureships, the governance of teacher education and deliberation on the content and purpose of a degree in Education – are used to help explain the apparent paradox between the historic place of education in Scottish culture and identity and the relatively recent full involvement of Scotland's universities in the professional preparation of teachers. Investigating the activities of the first academic community of educationists in Scotland may help to understand continuing struggles over jurisdiction and authority in this contested and yet neglected field.

Details

Teacher Preparation in Scotland
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-480-4

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 25 April 2014

John Struthers

All researchers have a self, but how many understand how their self informs their identity and world view? The use of self is vital in relationships, especially where…

Abstract

All researchers have a self, but how many understand how their self informs their identity and world view? The use of self is vital in relationships, especially where helping others to learn is central to the role. Many occupations, such as teaching and health care, require the individual to engage in reflective practices to inform how individuals give of themselves in professional practice. Despite the potential power of analytic autoethnography, there is an absence of clear examples which clarify how the theory and method are linked. From my background as a lecturer and mental health nurse I argue the value of analytic autoethnography as research-based self-study to assist self-development. This chapter has two main aims: (i) to provide an example as to how the theory and method within analytic autoethnography articulate into a research design; and (ii) to forewarn researchers as to the areas which require early consideration when constructing an analytic autoethnography to safeguard the researcher’s psychological wellbeing. My experiences draw parallels between the cognitive reflective skills required within the research methods to review values and beliefs held within memories and mental health cognitive therapies. The potential for cathartic insights increases the researcher’s empathy to shape appropriate responses to assist others to learn.

Details

Theory and Method in Higher Education Research II
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-823-5

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1997

Anthony Mananyi and John J. Struthers

Examines the “efficient market” hypothesis for cocoa beans traded on the London Futures and Options Exchange. Futures market efficiency implies that futures prices…

2209

Abstract

Examines the “efficient market” hypothesis for cocoa beans traded on the London Futures and Options Exchange. Futures market efficiency implies that futures prices accurately incorporate all currently known information. Consequently, current futures prices are unbiased forecasts of subsequent cash and/or futures prices and traders cannot earn abnormal returns. The recently developed cointegration theory is utilized to test efficiency in the London Cocoa Market. A problem in testing market efficiency is that the relevant economic data series may be non‐stationary. Under these circumstances, conventional statistical procedures for testing market efficiency are no longer appropriate. The use of a cointegration methodology properly accounts for the non‐stationary properties of futures and spot price series. The price data are monthly data from the London Futures and Options Exchange and they cover the period from 1985‐1991. The evidence presented here does not support the efficient market hypothesis.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

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