Many committees have produced tables of recommended dietary intakes. All are careful to stress that their recommendations are amounts sufficient, or more than sufficient, for the…
Many committees have produced tables of recommended dietary intakes. All are careful to stress that their recommendations are amounts sufficient, or more than sufficient, for the nutritional needs of practically all healthy persons in the population but are not a precise statement of nutrient requirements. The recommendations may ‘serve as guides for government officials and others whose duty it is to plan agricultural production and to control imports and exports of food in order to ensure that the food supply will be sufficient to meet the needs of the people’ and ‘may be used as a guide for caterers and dietitians when planning diets for groups of healthy individuals’
Food consists of a complex mixture of different chemical substances and we cannot understand the nutritional significance of any one component of food if we ignore the other components. The availability of a nutrient in any food will depend not only on its chemical and physical form, but also on the other substances present in the food. The absorption and metabolism of one nutrient is often affected by the intake of other nutrients. This article examines some of the many ways in which the different components in food may interact with each other.
Classical nutritional deficiency diseases are exceedingly rare in the elderly in this country, while other diseases such as ischaemic heart disease, respiratory disease, arthritis, cerebro vascular accidents (strokes) and dementia are very common. Why then are doctors concerned about the nutritional state of the elderly in this country? The answer is twofold; first, because there remains a strong suspicion that suboptimal nutrition while not being sufficiently severe to cause overt deficiency disease frequently contributes to ill health in the elderly; and second, because while many of the diseases to which the elderly are subject are difficult to treat, nutritional deficiency is simple and cheap to correct.
The following classified, annotated list of titles is intended to provide reference librarians with a current checklist of new reference books, and is designed to supplement the RSR review column, “Recent Reference Books,” by Frances Neel Cheney. “Reference Books in Print” includes all additional books received prior to the inclusion deadline established for this issue. Appearance in this column does not preclude a later review in RSR. Publishers are urged to send a copy of all new reference books directly to RSR as soon as published, for immediate listing in “Reference Books in Print.” Reference books with imprints older than two years will not be included (with the exception of current reprints or older books newly acquired for distribution by another publisher). The column shall also occasionally include library science or other library related publications of other than a reference character.
This paper aimed to identify the key elements that should be included in a fruit and vegetable‐promoting programme in British primary schools. Such a programme could be used in…
This paper aimed to identify the key elements that should be included in a fruit and vegetable‐promoting programme in British primary schools. Such a programme could be used in healthy schools schemes or “five‐a‐day” programmes. Five US school intervention studies were analysed to identify their most effective elements. Four of the five studies found that their intervention had a significant effect on fruit and vegetable consumption. All the studies were behaviourally focussed and used interactive teaching methods and were based on social cognitive theory. Targeting fruit and vegetable consumption appeared to be more effective than broader lifestyle/healthy eating interventions. All studies, except one, increased the availability of fruit and vegetables at school lunches but none increased their availability at snack times and breakfast. Three studies taught preparation skills. All included taste testing activities which aim to increase familiarity and so increase taste preferences. Four used role models to promote fruit and vegetables and two gave rewards for consumption. One study attempted to improve the sensory properties of fruit and vegetables at lunch through preparation techniques. Two studies included a community involvement component and four involved families in the intervention. Results from two of the studies showed that interventions must be maintained over time if effects are to be maintained. Greater effects were seen for fruit consumption than vegetable consumption except for one study which focussed specifically on vegetables.
The design of the built environment is a determinant of health. Accordingly, there is an increasing need for greater harmonization of the architectural profession and public…
The design of the built environment is a determinant of health. Accordingly, there is an increasing need for greater harmonization of the architectural profession and public health. However, there is a lack of knowledge on whether designers of the built environment are changing their practices to deliver healthier urban habitats. The paper aims to discuss these issues.
The research uses a multi-method approach to data analysis, including: systematic mapping study, structured review and thematic analysis.
The research finds that there are almost no requirements for the compulsory inclusion of health across institutions and agencies that have the power to execute and mandate the scope of architectural profession, training, education, practice or knowledge. Despite the urgent need for action and the myriad entreatments for greater integration between architecture and health, there is very little evidence progress.
The research has implications for the architectural profession and architectural education. Health and well-being is not currently an integral part of the educational or professional training requirements for architects. University educational curriculum and Continuing Professional Development criteria need to better integrate health and well-being into their knowledge-base.
The design of the built environment is currently undertaken by an architectural profession that lacks specialized knowledge of health and well-being. There is a risk to society of environments that fail to adequately protect and promote the health and well-being of its inhabitants.
The research evidences, for the first time, the lack of integration of “health and wellbeing” within the architecture profession training or education systems.
The present paper aims to explore how to measure trust as a receptivity force in an intra-organisational knowledge-sharing network with the help of self-developed algorithms of…
The present paper aims to explore how to measure trust as a receptivity force in an intra-organisational knowledge-sharing network with the help of self-developed algorithms of modelling percolations.
In this paper, a completely new methodology is applied by using a sample study of an international company’s financial centre as an example. Computer software has been developed to simulate the network and calculate the percolation thresholds by combining its characteristics, thereby revealing what and to what extent connectivity and trust, respectively, influence knowledge sharing.
The application of computer modelling to build up a percolation network is useful for answering questions about the determinants of knowledge sharing. Arguably, the authors demonstrate how the applied new methodology is superior in addressing how to measure the critical values of trust, connectivity and interaction issues, as well as leading to better insights about how these can be managed. The present paper confirms that trust is an essential factor influencing knowledge sharing and that there is a reciprocal effect between social interaction and trust.
The model provides a useful tool for assessing features of the intra-organisational knowledge-sharing network and thus an important foundation for implementing actions in practice. The findings of this study imply that managers should consider the important role of task-related trust between actors and in general for knowledge sharing. With the help of percolation modelling, the degree of trust in an organisation can be computed, and this provides managers with an approach for managing trust.
The topic of “how can trust be measured” is very important and is becoming even more important now because the financial crisis and other issues are raising questions about trust and moral compass rather than financial data. A percolation-based approach to studying knowledge sharing has not been researched in depth before now, and this study attempts to fill that gap. Fundamentally, this multidisciplinary research adds value to the theoretical foundation of the percolation network and research methodology to be used in social sciences and gives an example of their potential practical implications.