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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2012

Steven H. Appelbaum, Sally Habashy, Jean‐Luc Malo and Hisham Shafiq

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to gather current (2011) arguments and counterarguments in support of the classic change management model proposed by John P. Kotter

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Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to gather current (2011) arguments and counterarguments in support of the classic change management model proposed by John P. Kotter in his 1996 book Leading Change. His work was based on his personal business and research experience, and did not reference any outside sources that has questioned its value. A current perspective on a limited tested model aims to be a focus of this paper. Design/methodology/approach – The literature on change management was reviewed for each of the eight steps defined in Kotter's model, to review how much support each of these steps had, individually and collectively, in 15 years of literature. Findings – The review found support for most of the steps, although no formal studies were found covering the entire spectrum and structure of the model. Kotter's change management model appears to derive its popularity more from its direct and usable format than from any scientific consensus on the results. However the model has several limitations, that are identified, impacting upon its universal acceptance and popularity. Research limitations/implications – Further studies should examine the validity of Kotter's model as a whole. More importantly, change management research should form a greater link with stakeholders in order to translate current research into a format usable by practitioners. Practical implications – No evidence was found against Kotter's change management model and it remains a recommendable reference. This paper attempts to “test” the “how‐to‐do‐change management” with empirical and practitioner literature that was not evident in the original text. The model would be most useful as an implementation planning tool, but complementary tools should also be used during the implementation process to adapt to contextual factors or obstacles. Originality/value – Based upon a thorough review, this is the first formal review of Kotter's change management model, 15 years after its introduction.

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Journal of Management Development, vol. 31 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2014

Brian Leavy

This interview aims to illuminate some of the implementation issues inherent in a new conceptual approach to managing change offered by John P. Kotter. His very promising…

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2192

Abstract

Purpose

This interview aims to illuminate some of the implementation issues inherent in a new conceptual approach to managing change offered by John P. Kotter. His very promising and compelling idea is a dual operating system, comprised of a traditional management-driven hierarchy focused on delivering day-to-day performance and a strategic accelerator network focused on innovation and agility.

Design/methodology/approach

Kotter, a noted change management expert and Harvard professor emeritus, is questioned about his dual operating system concept by veteran strategist and author Brian Leavy.

Findings

Looking back, at some stage in almost every corporate history, network and hierarchy will be found to have co-existed symbiotically for some period of time before the traditional tendency for the hierarchy to dominate eventually took over. In effect, the network half of the dual operating system mimics “successful enterprises in their entrepreneurial phase,” where initiatives and sub-initiatives typically “coalesce and disband as needed.”

Practical implications

Kotter’s fieldwork has found that in even the most un-entrepreneurial organizations, there is 5 percent of the workforce that has the energy and desire, if organized correctly, to be an entrepreneurial force.

Originality/value

By asking Kotter some hard questions about implementation, the interview provides executives with a fuller view about how a dual operating system would address change management in their firm.

Details

Strategy & Leadership, vol. 42 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1087-8572

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2014

Toni M. Carter

The purpose of this paper is to report an academic library's efforts to introduce course-integrated assessment into its library instruction program. Applying a leadership…

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2668

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report an academic library's efforts to introduce course-integrated assessment into its library instruction program. Applying a leadership change model to the process allows for a step-by-step examination of both organizational change and the creation of cultures of assessment.

Design/methodology/approach

Over a period of three years, course-integrated assessment was introduced into an academic library's instruction program. Rather than implementing rapid, superficial change, the process focused on transforming librarians' thoughts and feelings about their teaching and student learning. Dr John P. Kotter's eight-step process for leading organizational change is applied to explain the methodology.

Findings

Kotter's leadership change model provides a suitable framework for organizing and implementing organizational change within an academic library. However, the use of his method to create and sustain cultures of assessment proves questionable. This may not be fault of his method, but a combination of a less than perfect application of his process and unrealistic expectations of how cultures of assessment develop and function.

Research limitations/implications

The paper focuses on one unit within an academic library, rather than an academic library as a whole.

Practical implications

Changing organizational culture, creating cultures of assessment, and/or implementing course-integrated assessment exemplify some of the challenging tasks academic libraries face in their mission to prove value. This case study provides a candid discussion of both successes and obstacles encountered in using a change leadership model to address each of these. It may also inspire other possible uses of such a model within academic libraries.

Originality/value

According to Meredith Farkas, investigations into the application of leadership change models to build and sustain cultures of assessment within academic libraries do not exist in the literature.

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1997

John P. Kotter

For years we have talked about managing change, now it's leading change. Why the shift?

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10159

Abstract

For years we have talked about managing change, now it's leading change. Why the shift?

Details

Strategy & Leadership, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1087-8572

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Steven H. Appelbaum, Aleksey Cameron, Floris Ensink, Jahnabi Hazarika, Raid Attir, Rouba Ezzedine and Varsha Shekhar

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that impact the success of an organizational change within an organization under study.

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5955

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that impact the success of an organizational change within an organization under study.

Design/methodology/approach

Five hypotheses were developed to investigate independent variables as possible factors affecting employees’ commitment to change. The research is based on a three-step process consisting of a literature review and field research through survey and interviews. The literature review served to establish an important foundation for understanding the problem. The field research involved employees taking part in the change completing a survey. Individual interviews were also conducted with management level employees actively involved in the change process. The paper is an empirical-based case analysis.

Findings

The results demonstrate that employees’ commitment to change, in this organization, can be improved through increasing formal and informal communication, creating adaptive organizational systems and enhancing the role of transformational leaders during the change.

Research limitations/implications

Sample size was affected due to the limited availability of employees during a specific organizational cycle. Increased sample size would allow further investigation about employees’ commitment to change. Additional research could be done on how the company’s systems and practices can be adapted to change.

Practical implications

The success of a change project is critical for its future strategy and major project implementation. It is crucial that a systematic process be followed to implement this change. It is suggested that the John Kotter’s “eight” step change management model be adopted as a framework to the implementation plan.

Social implications

New behaviors are subject to degradation if they are not ingrained in social norms and shared values, i.e. if they do not become part of the culture. Managers emphasized that, even though they are creating a new team, they recognize the importance not to create a “Monster” or a new alien culture. Leaders must make sure that all new behaviors required for the integration become part of the existing culture.

Originality/value

The paper provides insight in some of the factors that lead to a successful organizational change and team integration. The paper recommends four steps to address communication, organizational systems and culture to improve employees’ commitment to change.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 49 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

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Book part
Publication date: 3 June 2008

Charles B. Osburn

Corporate culture is a spirit formed by the shared values of the individuals in the organization that has potential to make the library more than the sum of its parts…

Abstract

Corporate culture is a spirit formed by the shared values of the individuals in the organization that has potential to make the library more than the sum of its parts, both positively and negatively. It is the vehicle by which the organization defines itself, for both itself and the clientele, with the purpose of providing the best service possible by sharing a vision of the organization as an organic whole. It operates through the power of peer influence rather than direct vertical authority. This paper takes a holistic approach to a concept that is more complex than it first appears; it addresses the molding of corporate culture, not as a management function, but as a complex and deep system, being in effect the soul of the organization, which resides in the motivation of each individual and which, therefore, requires a special kind of leadership.

Details

Advances in Library Administration and Organization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1488-1

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Book part
Publication date: 12 April 2019

William J. Schell

The purpose of this chapter is to provide the reader with tools to help change their organizational culture. Specifically, this chapter investigates the importance of…

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to provide the reader with tools to help change their organizational culture. Specifically, this chapter investigates the importance of leadership in understanding and changing culture within organizations and explores different change management models to effectively change culture within organizations. This chapter summarizes tools from the Leadership and Change Management literature, including findings from the author’s studies, and best practices from a variety of industries.

Tools are provided so that readers can target leadership changes in preparation for cultural change. Leadership behaviors at the top of an organization are discussed using the full-range leadership model, with a specific focus on understanding, developing, and harnessing transformational leadership behaviors within an organization. Leadership at the top of an organization is complemented with a discussion of the importance of middle leadership throughout the organization including a model to understand and develop those behaviors. The chapter ends with seven different approaches to structuring and managing change that organizations can adopt to improve the probability of driving successful change in their organizations.

For organizations seeking to develop or improve their safety culture, these tools provide a roadmap for harnessing the needed leadership behaviors and organizational tools to effectively make change. By understanding and applying these tools, organizations can find success in their culture change initiatives faster and with fewer problems.

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Book part
Publication date: 13 July 2020

Adriadi Novawan and Siti Aisyiyah

This chapter presents a reflective study on the role of leadership in curriculum changes in Indonesian higher education. It was based on case studies carried out in 2012…

Abstract

This chapter presents a reflective study on the role of leadership in curriculum changes in Indonesian higher education. It was based on case studies carried out in 2012 and 2014 at Politeknik Negeri Jember (POLIJE), a vocational higher education institution (HEI) that was selected by the Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of Indonesia as a pilot project implementation of the newly established Indonesian Qualification Framework. It describes the theoretical and contextual background of the study that was inseparable with the growing concern on globalization, internationalization, and democratization of HEIs worldwide. Meanwhile, curriculum changes since 1961 demonstrated the dynamic of the curriculum, which signified either the development of national education or instabilities in the individual HEIs. These signify the breadth, depth, and the contexts of ESD curriculum development in Indonesian HEIs, which confronted the leaders or managers with the complexity. This requires effective functions related to the change strategy and shared roles between the top and middle leaders in coping with the leadership, managerial, and academic issues within an interdisciplinary setting. In this top-down change, the intention to adopt the transformational leadership model was obvious in the level of top leaders, while in the middle leadership, practices were less hierarchical. The leaders both in the top and the middle levels had complemented to each other with low attention on the notion of organizational learning. In light of sustainable education, the notion of organizational learning gives the foundation for successful change and sustainable organizational development. It is because the best performance of an institution will strongly be influenced by the quality of investment in the capacity development of both the leaders and staff.

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Article
Publication date: 7 July 2020

Sasekea Harris, Cheryl Folkes, Karen Tyrell and David Brown

In an experience economy, the alternative options for higher education are varied; resulting in competition and a deliberate focus on student experience to create…

Abstract

Purpose

In an experience economy, the alternative options for higher education are varied; resulting in competition and a deliberate focus on student experience to create competitive advantage. In this regard, the various constituents of the university, including the library, are required to transform the organisational culture, specifically, the service culture, to engage students in a way that creates a memorable experience. In response, The UWI, Mona Library re-launched its Customer Service programme: using an in-house inspired 10 element service model, with initiatives aimed at realising each element, the library purposed to build a service culture. This paper seeks to assess employees' perception of the impact of the initiatives of this model.

Design/methodology/approach

This survey research employed individual interviews to assess employees' perception of the impact of the initiatives of the service model, with the objective of refining the model, where needed, for continued use in the Mona Library, and for use in libraries desirous of implementing the model.

Findings

The initiatives of the service model are creating the desired customer service culture and aspects have been identified for refinement.

Research limitations/implications

The model is based on the needs, experiences, history, culture and strategic priorities of one Caribbean university library. It centres on the employees and their perception. As such, it focuses less on the product, space and the external customer; but it is hoped that by focusing on the employees (specifically creating a service culture amongst them) that this will ultimately impact product, space and the overall customer experience.

Practical implications

Provides the top priorities and considerations for a practicing Caribbean / developing country academic library manger, with an interest in a model for nurturing service culture amongst the employees.

Originality/value

This paper is of value as it centres on creating a service culture, rather than on the usual customer service satisfaction survey, offers a service model and adds to the literature on customer service in academic libraries.

Details

Library Management, vol. 41 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-5124

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Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2000

John P. Kotter

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28830

Abstract

Details

The Bottom Line, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0888-045X

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