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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2019

Andrew M’manga, Shamal Faily, John McAlaney, Chris Williams, Youki Kadobayashi and Daisuke Miyamoto

The purpose of this paper is to investigate security decision-making during risk and uncertain conditions and to propose a normative model capable of tracing the decision…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate security decision-making during risk and uncertain conditions and to propose a normative model capable of tracing the decision rationale.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed risk rationalisation model is grounded in literature and studies on security analysts’ activities. The model design was inspired by established awareness models including the situation awareness and observe–orient–decide–act (OODA). Model validation was conducted using cognitive walkthroughs with security analysts.

Findings

The results indicate that the model may adequately be used to elicit the rationale or provide traceability for security decision-making. The results also illustrate how the model may be applied to facilitate design for security decision makers.

Research limitations/implications

The proof of concept is based on a hypothetical risk scenario. Further studies could investigate the model’s application in actual scenarios.

Originality/value

The paper proposes a novel approach to tracing the rationale behind security decision-making during risk and uncertain conditions. The research also illustrates techniques for adapting decision-making models to inform system design.

Details

Information & Computer Security, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4961

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Article
Publication date: 17 October 2008

John Park, Catherine McAlaney and Moira Connolly

This paper seeks to provide an overview of how the involvement of clinicians in the design and implementation of an electronic clinical information system has contributed…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to provide an overview of how the involvement of clinicians in the design and implementation of an electronic clinical information system has contributed towards more effective clinical governance, while improving the care of patients with a diagnosis of psychosis.

Design/methodology/approach

A data collection form was designed by a consultant in public health and a group of consultant psychiatrists to facilitate and standardise the data to be collected and stored on the information system. Two research nurses conducted a retrospective case note audit to record specified data on all existing patients from an inclusive diagnosis list in contact with CMHTs.

Findings

The establishment of PsyCIS has increased the understanding of the nature and prevalence of psychosis in Greater Glasgow for patients aged 18‐65. As well as giving some insight into how the needs of this patient group are being addressed, it has also provided clinicians with the ability to benefit from their collective experience on the treatment and support of this patient group.

Practical implications

To ensure excellent data quality and information management systems, it is essential to involve clinicians in their design and validation. The primary goal of information should be to aid clinical practice and patient care. Well designed datasets will also provide information that can inform clinical governance as well as the management of services and resources.

Originality/value

This paper supports the view that clinical audit and electronic clinical information systems are imperative for effective clinical governance.

Details

Clinical Governance: An International Journal, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7274

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 19 November 2020

Abstract

Details

The Impact of Global Drug Policy on Women: Shifting the Needle
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-885-0

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Afzal Sheikh, Sunil Vadera, Michael Ravey, Gary Lovatt and Grace Kelly

Over 200,000 young people in the UK embark on a smoking career annually, thus continued effort is required to understand the types of interventions that are most effective…

Abstract

Purpose

Over 200,000 young people in the UK embark on a smoking career annually, thus continued effort is required to understand the types of interventions that are most effective in changing perceptions about smoking amongst teenagers. Several authors have proposed the use of social norms programmes, where correcting misconceptions of what is considered normal behaviour lead to improved behaviours. There are a limited number of studies showing the effectiveness of such programmes for changing teenagers’ perception of smoking habits, and hence this paper reports on the results from one of the largest social norms programmes that used a variety of interventions aimed at improving teenagers’ perceptions of smoking. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

A range of interventions were adopted for 57 programmes in year nine students, ranging from passive interventions such as posters and banners to active interventions such as student apps and enterprise days. Each programme consisted of a baseline survey followed by interventions and a repeat survey to calculate the change in perception. A clustering algorithm was also used to reveal the impact of combinations of interventions.

Findings

The study reveals three main findings: the use of social norms is an effective means of changing perceptions, the level of interventions and change in perceptions are positively correlated, and that the most effective combinations of interventions include the use of interactive feedback assemblies, enterprise days, parent and student apps and newsletters to parents.

Originality/value

The paper presents results from one of the largest social norm programmes aimed at improving young people’s perceptions and the first to use clustering methods to reveal the impact of combinations of intervention.

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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2013

Tim Harries, Ruth Rettie, Matthew Studley, Kevin Burchell and Simon Chambers

The purpose of this paper is to present details of a large-scale experiment that evaluated the impact of communicating two types of feedback to householders regarding…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present details of a large-scale experiment that evaluated the impact of communicating two types of feedback to householders regarding their domestic electricity consumption: feedback on their own consumption and feedback of both their own consumption and that of others in their locality.

Design/methodology/approach

Digital technologies were used to automatically measure and communicate the electricity consumption of 316 UK residents for a period of 16 weeks. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: one involving no feedback; one involving feedback about a household's own usage, and one involving a household's own usage plus social norms feedback (the average consumption of others in the locality). At the end of the study, a selection of participants took part in interviews or focus groups.

Findings

Both types of feedback (individual and individual-plus-social-norms) led to reductions in consumption of about 3 per cent. Those receiving social norms feedback were significantly more likely to engage with the information provided. However, the social norms information had no additional impact on consumption. Survey and interview data confirmed that participants from both conditions had been encouraged to adopt new energy-saving practices. The study concludes that near real-time individual feedback can be sufficient for usage reduction if it is provided in a historical format. It also suggests that the impact of social norms information may previously have been confounded with that of individual feedback.

Originality/value

This is the first time that a controlled experiment in the field of domestic electricity consumption has compared the impact of real-time social norm information with that of information that only contains individual household usage.

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2018

Lynne Wood and Isabella McMurray

A continuing challenge in the design of effective interventions to prevent adolescents’ alcohol misuse is understanding adolescent drinking behaviour. Although previous…

Abstract

Purpose

A continuing challenge in the design of effective interventions to prevent adolescents’ alcohol misuse is understanding adolescent drinking behaviour. Although previous research has indicated a number of factors that might predict drinking behaviour, there has been less qualitative exploration of adolescents’ own views. The purpose of this paper is to gain a further understanding of adolescents’ views towards alcohol use and the types of environment in which adolescents drink alcohol.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative design was employed with eight focus groups conducted in groups of 3–5 with 27 adolescents (12 girls and 15 boys) aged between 12 and 14.

Findings

Thematic analysis identified overarching themes evident across groups suggesting key influences on adolescent drinking behaviour are “social norms”, “enjoyment of alcohol”, “images” and “creation of drinking spaces”.

Research limitations/implications

This research highlights the importance of environments, parents, friends and peers in understanding adolescent’s alcohol use.

Practical implications

The implications of this research suggest that interventions should consider targeting peer groups.

Social implications

These themes highlight the importance of more socially based interventions.

Originality/value

This paper explores adolescents’ own views of their drinking behaviours.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Shamal Faily, Claudia Iacob, Raian Ali and Duncan Ki-Aries

This paper aims to present a tool-supported approach for visualising personas as social goal models, which can subsequently be used to identify security tensions.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a tool-supported approach for visualising personas as social goal models, which can subsequently be used to identify security tensions.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors devised an approach to partially automate the construction of social goal models from personas. The authors provide two examples of how this approach can identify previously hidden implicit vulnerabilities and validate ethical hazards faced by penetration testers and their safeguards.

Findings

Visualising personas as goal models makes it easier for stakeholders to see implications of their goals being satisfied or denied and designers to incorporate the creation and analysis of such models into the broader requirements engineering (RE) tool-chain.

Originality/value

The approach can be used with minimal changes to existing user experience and goal modelling approaches and security RE tools.

Details

Information & Computer Security, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4961

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2019

Jacqueline M. Archibald and Karen Renaud

Penetration tests have become a valuable tool in the cyber security defence strategy in terms of detecting vulnerabilities. Although penetration testing has traditionally…

Abstract

Purpose

Penetration tests have become a valuable tool in the cyber security defence strategy in terms of detecting vulnerabilities. Although penetration testing has traditionally focussed on technical aspects, the field has started to realise the importance of the human in the organisation, and the need to ensure that humans are resistant to cyberattacks. To achieve this, some organisations “pentest” their employees, testing their resilience and ability to detect and repel human-targeted attacks. In a previous paper, the authors reported on PoinTER (Prepare TEst Remediate), a human pentesting framework, tailored to the needs of SMEs. This paper aims to propose improvements to refine the framework. The improvements are based on a derived set of ethical principles that have been subjected to ethical scrutiny

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a systematic literature review of academic research, a review of actual hacker techniques, industry recommendations and official body advice related to social engineering techniques. To meet the requirements to have an ethical human pentesting framework, the authors compiled a list of ethical principles from the research literature which they used to filter out techniques deemed unethical.

Findings

Drawing on social engineering techniques from academic research, reported by the hacker community, industry recommendations and official body advice and subjecting each technique to ethical inspection, using a comprehensive list of ethical principles, the authors propose the refined GDPR-compliant and privacy respecting PoinTER framework. The list of ethical principles, as suggested, could also inform ethical technical pentests.

Originality/value

Previous work has considered penetration testing humans, but few have produced a comprehensive framework such as PoinTER. PoinTER has been rigorously derived from multiple sources and ethically scrutinised through inspection, using a comprehensive list of ethical principles derived from the research literature.

Details

Information & Computer Security, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4961

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Article
Publication date: 19 December 2018

Stephen Gibb and Shama Rahman

The purpose of this study is to model and explore kindness as a factor in employment contexts. “Kindness among colleagues” is a particular context for the scientific study…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to model and explore kindness as a factor in employment contexts. “Kindness among colleagues” is a particular context for the scientific study of kindness which has been under-researched. There is scope within the burgeoning study of kindness for research concerned with employment contexts and colleagues, adopting an employment context appropriate construct of kindness, generating and considering evidence that might be evaluated rigorously in the employment context where kindness is both advocated and critiqued.

Design/methodology/approach

The literature review identifies and explores the gaps in kindness research in the employment context. A construct distinguishing a set of antecedents of kindness among colleagues was developed to address these gaps. The relevance and usefulness of the construct was tested in semi-structured interviews among some work colleagues in a specific organization setting.

Findings

The results show that the four antecedents of kindness can be used to capture and explore perceptions and experiences of kindness among colleagues. There is scope for analysis at the levels of individuals, teams and organizations using data about these antecedents which allows for individual and more general workplace dynamics to be described and explored.

Research limitations/implications

The antecedents of kindness construct are validated to an extent by this initial study. The potential of this for describing and analyzing kindness and workplace relevant themes makes it worth further development; to refine and validate an instrument for measuring kindness among colleagues.

Practical implications

Kindness among colleagues, if understood in the nuanced way presented here, can help individuals, teams and organizations review and evaluate themselves in diverse contexts. Contexts can be expected to vary with workforce demographics, leadership style and organization cultures.

Social implications

Kindness is a burgeoning theme and concern across diverse social and cultural contexts for various reasons. The scientific contribution to the advocacy or critique of kindness, in this case kindness among colleagues, provides value in rigor, operationalization and evidencing of the case for and against advocacy of the value of kindness in general.

Originality/value

This is a focused review and study of kindness among colleagues which contributes to the nomological and methodological development of a scientific approach to organizational analysis concerns with this important theme in contemporary times.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2012

Luu Trong Tuan

This research aims to look through the data of Nhan Dan Gia Dinh Hospital, a state‐owned hospital in Vietnam, for evidence on whether a clinical governance initiative…

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1937

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to look through the data of Nhan Dan Gia Dinh Hospital, a state‐owned hospital in Vietnam, for evidence on whether a clinical governance initiative cultivates ethical leadership, market‐ or innovation‐oriented culture, knowledge sharing, and knowledge‐ or identity‐based trust.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through a case study approach with hospital document collection, field observations, and in‐depth interviews conducted between April 2009 and April 2011.

Findings

The findings demonstrated that a clinical governance initiative, when effectively implemented, can function as a lever for behavioural transformations in the hospital towards ethical leadership, market‐ or innovation‐oriented culture, knowledge sharing, and knowledge‐ or identity‐based trust.

Originality/value

The current research provides a portrayal of an effective clinical governance initiative with its proactive hospital outcomes such as ethical leadership, market‐ or innovation‐oriented culture, knowledge sharing, and knowledge‐ or identity‐based trust on the hospital journey of sustainable health creation. This paper also highlights the necessity for research that examines other organizational outcomes of clinical governance in Vietnamese hospitals of other ownerships.

Details

Clinical Governance: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7274

Keywords

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