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The case we report elsewhere in this issue, in which a beverage described as “flavoured and coloured cider,” was sold to the public as “British Wine” at more than double the price of the genuine product, raises issues of importance not only to the general public, but also to producers and public authorities concerned with the administration of the Food and Drugs Act and other measures protecting the interests of the consumer. What standards of quality can the public reasonably demand from the supplier of British Wines? Owing to the great variety of wines produced and the multiplicity of processes involved, it has not been found practicable in any part of the world to devise a universally acceptable definition of wine, but clearly the primary condition which entitles a beverage to this description is that it should be produced with the product of the vine as a basis, at least in the case of those varieties which are marketed under foreign appellations. The consumer may also reasonably expect, and the conscientious wine merchant ordinarily takes care to provide, a wine which has keeping qualities, such as can be guaranteed only in a beverage which contains enough alcohol to preserve it. The descriptions “Port Type” or “Sherry Type” which commonly appear on British Wine labels entitle the purchaser to expect a beverage as nearly approaching the quality and characteristics of the imported variety as the Customs and Excise Regulations permit. Imported Sherries or Ports, thanks to the right granted to producers to fortify them, normally contain some 20 per cent. of Ethyl Alcohol, or 35/36 degrees of proof spirit. This right of fortification is denied to British Wines, which, therefore, must contain a lesser degree of alcohol obtained by natural fermentation. The purchaser, nevertheless, expects a beverage of the same keeping qualities as the imported variety. It is true that other wines keep in bottle at much lower strengths, but table wines of this character are usually consumed the same day as they are opened, and are not, like Ports and Sherries and their substitutes, kept for days or weeks in the cupbdard or on the sideboard. In our opinion, such keeping qualities cannot be achieved by British Wine makers with less than 16½ per cent. of alcohol, or 28/29 degrees of proof spirit, with a corresponding content in sweetness which materially helps to preserve the wine. In the drier types a still higher degree of strength is necessary. While it is true that the foreign and colonial class of N.E.25 and N.E.27 proof spirit are imported into this country, these wines are greatly helped by their high degree of sweetness which the British Wine producer can only reach, under existing regulations, at the expense of the alcohol necessary to ensure the keeping qualities demanded by his customers. In any regulations framed to protect the consumer, the above considerations, which are based on experience and traditional practice, must be constantly borne in mind.
In the last four years, since Volume I of this Bibliography first appeared, there has been an explosion of literature in all the main functional areas of business. This…
In the last four years, since Volume I of this Bibliography first appeared, there has been an explosion of literature in all the main functional areas of business. This wealth of material poses problems for the researcher in management studies — and, of course, for the librarian: uncovering what has been written in any one area is not an easy task. This volume aims to help the librarian and the researcher overcome some of the immediate problems of identification of material. It is an annotated bibliography of management, drawing on the wide variety of literature produced by MCB University Press. Over the last four years, MCB University Press has produced an extensive range of books and serial publications covering most of the established and many of the developing areas of management. This volume, in conjunction with Volume I, provides a guide to all the material published so far.
Research in labour economics during the past several years has led to the development of the theory of human capital. This theory deals with a variety of issues concerning…
Research in labour economics during the past several years has led to the development of the theory of human capital. This theory deals with a variety of issues concerning the productivity of people as the result of their human capital.
It was only after considerable pressure had been brought to bear by the various health authorities of the country that the Government, in July, 1899, appointed a Departmental Committee to consider the subject of the use of preservatives and colouring matters in food, and it is now some months ago that the full report of the Committee was published, containing certain recommendations of the utmost importance for the consideration of the authorities. Up to the present time nothing further has been heard of the matter, and in answer to a question recently put to the President of the Local Government Board by the Mayor of Kensington, Sir SEYMOUR KING, as to whether the Board intends to take steps by the introduction of a Bill, or otherwise, for giving effect at an early date to the recommendations contained in the report of the Committee, the President stated that the report was “still under consideration,” and that he could make no statement at present as to the course which the Government would take.
Inspections have been made during the year at the majority of the principal food importing ports in England and Wales in connection with the administration of the Public Health (Foreign Meat) and the Public Health (Unsound Food) Regulations, 1908.
Research on identity in organizations takes endurance overtime as a taken‐for‐granted expectation, but then often explores how identity changes. Conversely, research on…
Research on identity in organizations takes endurance overtime as a taken‐for‐granted expectation, but then often explores how identity changes. Conversely, research on memory in organizations takes change as a taken‐for‐granted expectation and then explores how particular memories might be maintained by purposeful action. We used both of these literatures as a basis for exploring what happened to two aspects of an organizational group's identity over the course of its first seven years. One aspect of identity centered on the group's mission and the other on the group's internal processes. Based on analysis of the processes involved in the evolution of the group's identity, we suggest several factors that foster stability in identity and several factors that foster change in identity. From the identification of these factors, and based on Lewin's Field Theory approach, we suggest a more complex depiction of what identity stability or change might mean overtime.
The institution of food and cookery exhibitions and the dissemination of practical knowledge with respect to cookery by means of lectures and demonstrations are excellent things in their way. But while it is important that better and more scientific attention should be generally given to the preparation of food for the table, it must be admitted to be at least equally important to insure that the food before it comes into the hands of the expert cook shall be free from adulteration, and as far as possible from impurity,—that it should be, in fact, of the quality expected. Protection up to a certain point and in certain directions is afforded to the consumer by penal enactments, and hitherto the general public have been disposed to believe that those enactments are in their nature and in their application such as to guarantee a fairly general supply of articles of tolerable quality. The adulteration laws, however, while absolutely necessary for the purpose of holding many forms of fraud in check, and particularly for keeping them within certain bounds, cannot afford any guarantees of superior, or even of good, quality. Except in rare instances, even those who control the supply of articles of food to large public and private establishments fail to take steps to assure themselves that the nature and quality of the goods supplied to them are what they are represented to be. The sophisticator and adulterator are always with us. The temptations to undersell and to misrepresent seem to be so strong that firms and individuals from whom far better things might reasonably be expected fall away from the right path with deplorable facility, and seek to save themselves, should they by chance be brought to book, by forms of quibbling and wriggling which are in themselves sufficient to show the moral rottenness which can be brought about by an insatiable lust for gain. There is, unfortunately, cheating to be met with at every turn, and it behoves at least those who control the purchase and the cooking of food on the large scale to do what they can to insure the supply to them of articles which have not been tampered with, and which are in all respects of proper quality, both by insisting on being furnished with sufficiently authoritative guarantees by the vendors, and by themselves causing the application of reasonably frequent scientific checks upon the quality of the goods.
This research paper explores the perspectives of Australian school principals in the state of New South Wales (NSW) regarding what they believe constitutes “merit” when…
This research paper explores the perspectives of Australian school principals in the state of New South Wales (NSW) regarding what they believe constitutes “merit” when selecting deputy principals, assistant principals (primary) and head teachers (secondary).
An online survey was utilised to collect qualitative and quantitative data from school principals across the state of NSW to investigate their understanding of, and approach to, the merit selection of their respective school leadership cadres.
Study findings indicated a statewide variance in the perceptions of principals when identifying merit for the purposes of recruiting school leadership teams. These findings question the widely held view that candidates compete for school leadership positions on a level playing field.
In practical terms, the findings indicate that NSW school principals would benefit from more intensive professional learning opportunities designed to enhance their ability to objectively identify and assess merit when selecting school leaders.
This study contributes to an enhanced understanding in an area where there is a paucity of research-based evidence focusing upon the perspectives of school principals regarding their understanding of meritocratic theory and its influence on their school leadership selection practice.