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America's consumable goods (CG) manufacturers and retailers are undergoing a sea change, according to the results of a recent Louis Harris survey report. The report…
America's consumable goods (CG) manufacturers and retailers are undergoing a sea change, according to the results of a recent Louis Harris survey report. The report analyzed the impact of quick response (QR) and supply‐chain partnering issues on the industry; these systems employ technology that dramatically improves the flow of information and product between supplier and retailer. An important conclusion of the report was that a small group of CG manufacturing leaders has broken away and pulled far ahead of its peers in QR use and leverage. Considering the dramatic progress made by this group in a relatively short time, the issue is who will be next to quickly emerge and gain disproportionate benefits.
Although researchers have suggested that aggression is multiply determined, most studies examine only a small set of predictors, focusing on either situational or…
Although researchers have suggested that aggression is multiply determined, most studies examine only a small set of predictors, focusing on either situational or individual or reciprocal motives. Research has not studied extensively the relative strength of multiple antecedent sets. Using questionnaire data (n = 366), the current study examines eleven antecedents of employees engaging in aggression: situational antecedents (i.e., procedural, distributive, and interpersonal justice; organizational, work group, and job related stress), individual difference antecedents (i.e., Type A behavior, trait anger, reactions to anger), and reciprocal effects (i.e., being the target of aggression). Individual difference antecedents and being the target of aggression influence the frequency with which employees report engaging in aggression. Situational antecedents are not significant predictors once other antecedents are taken into account.
The purpose of this chapter is to suggest ways for early childhood teachers to teach science content knowledge, vocabulary, respect, and an appreciation for nature while…
The purpose of this chapter is to suggest ways for early childhood teachers to teach science content knowledge, vocabulary, respect, and an appreciation for nature while children engage in meaningful outdoor nature activities. Science concepts such as nature, life cycle, observation, and experimentation can be woven into outdoor activities as children pretend to be nature scientists. Intentional planning provides teachers with the opportunity to integrate science content knowledge and vocabulary learning during the nature study. The careful selection of content vocabulary related to the scientific process and science content knowledge helps children learn new words in meaningful and developmentally appropriate ways. This chapter provides several examples of outdoor nature activities with science content knowledge and vocabulary embedded into each activity.
In the present paper direct as well as indirect relationships between organizational changes and exposure to bullying at work are investigated. Interpersonal conflicts are…
In the present paper direct as well as indirect relationships between organizational changes and exposure to bullying at work are investigated. Interpersonal conflicts are hypothesized to mediate changes on bullying. Data from a sample of 2408 Norwegian employees confirmed that different organizational changes were moderately associated with task-related bullying at work, and that exposure to more changes increased the likelihood of being bullied. Structural equation modelling supported the assumption that changes were directly related to bullying. However, the hypothesis that changes were mediated on bullying through interpersonal conflicts was not supported. Results indicate that organizational changes and interpersonal conflicts are separate, and mainly independent, precursors of bullying at work.
Given the definition for traffic safety culture (proposed in the first chapter) as the shared beliefs of a group which affect behaviors related to traffic safety, this…
Given the definition for traffic safety culture (proposed in the first chapter) as the shared beliefs of a group which affect behaviors related to traffic safety, this chapter provides practical guidance on ways to measure traffic safety culture, analyze collected data, and use the analysis to inform interventions. The proposed definition of “shared beliefs” used a behavioral model to inform specifically what beliefs may influence intentional behaviors involved with either reducing or improving traffic safety. This behavioral model provides a framework to guide measurement. Analyses include examining the prevalence of beliefs and behaviors, the relationships between beliefs and behaviors, and identifying “gaps” in beliefs that may be important to address in interventions. Finally, an example of a traffic safety culture program which includes a collecting of strategies working across the social ecology to improve traffic safety is introduced (in this case, seat belt use).
Decision making under uncertainty has evolved as an important focus of interest by economists and others who wish to improve the performance of the firm and the…
Decision making under uncertainty has evolved as an important focus of interest by economists and others who wish to improve the performance of the firm and the individual, Bernoulli (1954), Ramsey (1931) and von Neuman‐Morgenstern (1944) provide us with the basic maximizing rule of normative choice behaviour under uncertainty as embodied in expected utility maximization (EUM). Typically we can posit that an individual allots utility estimates to each alternative in his opportunity set and chooses the mix which maximises expected utility. However, the EUM rule can provide an optimum selection criterion and what this paper offers is a survey and critique of the EUM as it applies to the microeconomic foundation of the theory of the firm (sections 2 through 5).
Contemporary literature reveals that, to date, the poultry livestock sector has not received sufficient research attention. This particular industry suffers from…
Contemporary literature reveals that, to date, the poultry livestock sector has not received sufficient research attention. This particular industry suffers from unstructured supply chain practices, lack of awareness of the implications of the sustainability concept and failure to recycle poultry wastes. The current research thus attempts to develop an integrated supply chain model in the context of poultry industry in Bangladesh. The study considers both sustainability and supply chain issues in order to incorporate them in the poultry supply chain. By placing the forward and reverse supply chains in a single framework, existing problems can be resolved to gain economic, social and environmental benefits, which will be more sustainable than the present practices.
The theoretical underpinning of this research is ‘sustainability’ and the ‘supply chain processes’ in order to examine possible improvements in the poultry production process along with waste management. The research adopts the positivist paradigm and ‘design science’ methods with the support of system dynamics (SD) and the case study methods. Initially, a mental model is developed followed by the causal loop diagram based on in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and observation techniques. The causal model helps to understand the linkages between the associated variables for each issue. Finally, the causal loop diagram is transformed into a stock and flow (quantitative) model, which is a prerequisite for SD-based simulation modelling. A decision support system (DSS) is then developed to analyse the complex decision-making process along the supply chains.
The findings reveal that integration of the supply chain can bring economic, social and environmental sustainability along with a structured production process. It is also observed that the poultry industry can apply the model outcomes in the real-life practices with minor adjustments. This present research has both theoretical and practical implications. The proposed model’s unique characteristics in mitigating the existing problems are supported by the sustainability and supply chain theories. As for practical implications, the poultry industry in Bangladesh can follow the proposed supply chain structure (as par the research model) and test various policies via simulation prior to its application. Positive outcomes of the simulation study may provide enough confidence to implement the desired changes within the industry and their supply chain networks.