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Discussions about transferring human resource practices across national borders inevitably raise the question as to whether practices in different countries will converge on a common model or whether they will be characterized by continued divergence. The convergence hypothesis is a product of the landmark study by Kerr, Dunlop, Harbison, and Myers (1960), who sought to understand the forces shaping national industrial relations systems by analyzing the experiences of national economies at various stages of industrialization. They predicted a convergence of practices as industrial societies adopted plural market economies in which major actors shared beliefs about the nature of industrialism, the efficacy of the market economy, and the need for mechanisms to reconcile the interests of employers, the public, and workers.
With higher female labor force participation and the greater prevalence of dual-career families, family responsibilities ever more overlap work responsibilities. Companies…
With higher female labor force participation and the greater prevalence of dual-career families, family responsibilities ever more overlap work responsibilities. Companies have begun to respond to the changing nature of the workforce by offering family-friendly policies that are intended to help employees manage family responsibilities while remaining productive workers. Examples of family-friendly policies include child and dependent care, flexible leave polices, and time off for family emergencies (Daley, 1998; Folsom & Botsch, 1993; Greenfield, 1997; Ezra & Deckman, 1996). Some benefits frequently offered by employers are not considered family-friendly policies because they are not primarily directed toward the management of family responsibilities. Examples of those benefits are educational assistance for the employee, mortgage assistance, holidays, and employee wellness programs.
This chapter examines gender diversity with a focus on the proportion of females in companies in Taiwan. The investigation also examines the effect of the proportion of…
This chapter examines gender diversity with a focus on the proportion of females in companies in Taiwan. The investigation also examines the effect of the proportion of females on company performance. The research used two Taiwan government databases offering statistics of individual indigenous companies in the manufacturing industries in 1996 and 2001, with a sample size of 8,622 in 1996 and 8,731 in 2001. Results show that the proportion of females in managerial, professional, and administrative jobs is increasing and is positively associated with company performance. By contrast, the proportion of females in operational-level jobs is decreasing, and its association with company performance is inconsistent. This study extends previous gender diversity research in management groups and suggests that women can be invaluable resources for business organizations in Taiwan.
The information technology (IT) sector has gained prominence since 1990. However, studies on the human resource management (HRM) policies and practices of multinational…
The information technology (IT) sector has gained prominence since 1990. However, studies on the human resource management (HRM) policies and practices of multinational corporations (MNCs) have been few and far between. In this paper we study the Indian IT sector using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. For the quantitative research design, we used structured measurement tools developed by the Global HRM Project. Data were collected from 36 IT MNCs of Indian and foreign origin (U.S. and European) located in Bangalore and Hyderabad in India. We tested four hypotheses that were verified using the Mann–Whitney test of mean rank. We assessed the flow of HRM practices and the differences in HR practices between Indian and foreign MNCs. For the qualitative design we used an unstructured approach to gather secondary data sources and used anecdotal data gathered over a decade through our interactions with the Indian IT industry. We used the narrative style to show past and current Indian business culture, level of technology, and implications for foreign direct investment in the Indian IT sector. We state two qualitative hypotheses for this part of the research study. We find the current business culture and level of technology of Indian IT MNCs moderately similar to those of foreign MNCs, and more so U.S. MNCs. We find no differences between Indian and foreign MNCs in HRM practices. We assume that the unexpected similarity in international human resource management (IHRM) practices is probably due to: (1) the nature of information technology, (2) closing levels of R&D between Indian and foreign MNCs, and (3) similar business cultures of Indian and foreign MNCs. IT-intensive global organizations are likely get a step closer to global IHRM standardization.
The traditional Confucian management system is considered distinctly different from Western-based management. This study draws data from indigenous Taiwanese firms listed…
The traditional Confucian management system is considered distinctly different from Western-based management. This study draws data from indigenous Taiwanese firms listed on its public stock market and examines the associations among various human resource (HR) systems and organizational performance. First, factor analysis is used to explore a wide range of HR practices. Then, cluster analysis is used to classify indigenous Taiwanese firms with regard to their HR practices. Indigenous Taiwanese firms were found to use various HR systems, ranging from traditional Confucian HR to high-involvement HR practices. Companies that used high-involvement HR systems were found to perform better than those using a traditional Confucian HR system.
The goal of this study was to test the human capital (HC) theory within the Russian context and explore current HC organizational practices (including training and…
The goal of this study was to test the human capital (HC) theory within the Russian context and explore current HC organizational practices (including training and development, recruitment and selection, compensation, empowerment, diversity, and work/family balance) of Russian enterprises. The data were collected at 270 large, medium, and small enterprises in Moscow and four representative regional centers. The study results suggest that Russian firms tended to emphasize current HC needs, not long-term HC development strategies. The firm size had an effect on differences in training, selection, and compensation practices, with large firms being more long-term oriented. Correlation between elements of the HC management model provided some preliminary evidence that Russian firms tried to coordinate selection, compensation, and training procedures. In addition, firms that empowered their employees were also putting more emphasis on long-term-oriented training, selection, and compensation practices. Finally, there were signs that diversity was gradually becoming an important issue for Russian enterprises of all sizes. However, compared to diversity, companies’ emphasis on helping their employees to deal with the work/family balance issue was much stronger.
Provides an overview of labour‐market diversity issues in Thailand. Examines factors such as religion, ethnicity and gender in the context of Thailand’s rapidly expanding…
Provides an overview of labour‐market diversity issues in Thailand. Examines factors such as religion, ethnicity and gender in the context of Thailand’s rapidly expanding economy. Concludes that religious and ethnic divisions are not especially pronounced in Thailand. However, with its relatively high female labour force participation and few restrictions on discriminatory behaviour, Thailand’s chief diversity issue concerns the role of women in the labour market. Presents an empirical analysis of data concerning job openings for white‐collar positions. Focuses on the role that multinational corporations, a major force in the Thai economy, play in promoting or inhibiting gender‐based employment discrimination. Suggests that multinationals are indeed very important in this process, with significant differences among the effects exerted by the subsidiaries of US, Japanese and European MNCs in comparison to Thai‐owned firms.