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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1996

John I. Ahmad

Garlic (Allium sativum L) is becoming increasingly popular as an important component in the culinary vocabulary of the cooks in this country. Humans are known to have consumed…

628

Abstract

Garlic (Allium sativum L) is becoming increasingly popular as an important component in the culinary vocabulary of the cooks in this country. Humans are known to have consumed garlic for many millennia as a cure for a wide variety of different conditions. Its volatile components are reputed to have antithrombotic, antimicrobial, free radical scavenger activity associated with them. Its mythical medicinal properties are now being studied scientifically and some of the claims have been proven to be correct. Ten years ago garlic would have been difficult to obtain except in the speciality health shops or ethnic supermarkets: now it is freely available everywhere.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 96 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1995

John I. Ahmad

It is estimated that by the turn of the millennium the world humanpopulation could exceed ten billion. Scientists inevitably are searchingfor effective alternative methods of food…

2996

Abstract

It is estimated that by the turn of the millennium the world human population could exceed ten billion. Scientists inevitably are searching for effective alternative methods of food preservation. Accordingly, ionization radiation, discovered nearly a hundred years ago when it was first shown to kill micro‐organisms in foods, is being increasingly encouraged as an alternative method of food preservation. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared irradiation to be “a powerful tool against preventable food losses and food borne illnesses”. Low dose irradiation, up to 10KGy dose, has been shown to delay ripening, enhance shelf‐life, kill bacteria such as salmonella, listeria, etc., destroy insect infestation, eliminate unwanted sprouting, and in many cases improve flavour and texture of foods. The consumer may not be aware, but a staggering tonnage of food is already being irradiated around the world. Irradiation does not impart any radioactivity to the food and the irradiated food has been shown to be safe for human consumption. The technique offers yet another possibility of extending choice in new exotics for the consumer.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 95 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1995

John I. Ahmad

Posits that fibre is an essential constituent of the daily diet.Outlines the types of dietary fibre and summarizes some common diseasesassociated with the lack of fibre in the…

1202

Abstract

Posits that fibre is an essential constituent of the daily diet. Outlines the types of dietary fibre and summarizes some common diseases associated with the lack of fibre in the human diet.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 95 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1994

John I. Ahmad

The health problem commonly associated with consuming a diet rich incholesterol – what is generally termed atherosclerosis – is widespread inthe Western world and the single most…

2883

Abstract

The health problem commonly associated with consuming a diet rich in cholesterol – what is generally termed atherosclerosis – is widespread in the Western world and the single most prevalent cause of death. Public awareness about cholesterol is, however, patchy owing to conflicting and confusing information in the media. Attempts to give an understanding about chemical composition, the mode of presence, metabolism, and other general current information and practices about cholesterol and how it may be controlled to maintain safe levels in the body.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 94 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 August 2017

Charles Thomas Tackney and Imran Shah

Authenticity/ الصحة (as-sehah) serves as a criterion or predictor variable for the purpose of a comparative theological investigation of employment relations parameters in light…

Abstract

Purpose

Authenticity/ الصحة (as-sehah) serves as a criterion or predictor variable for the purpose of a comparative theological investigation of employment relations parameters in light of social teachings from Sunni Islam and Roman Catholicism. Authenticity finds initial, shared significance in both religious traditions because of its critically important role in judgments concerning the legitimacy of source documents. It also stands in both traditions as an inspirational goal for human life.

Design/methodology/approach

Particular issues of theological method for cross-cultural analysis are addressed by the use of insight-based critical realism as a transcultural foundation. Workplace parameters, the minimal enabling conditions for the possibility of authentic employment relations, are then identified and compared. The authors explore shared expectations for authenticity enabling conditions in terms of the direct and indirect employer: those national laws, systems and traditions that condition the functional range of authenticity that can be actualized within national or other work settings as experienced in the direct employment contract.

Findings

The study found remarkable consistency in the minimal conditions identified by Roman Catholic and Sunni Islam social teachings for the prospects of authenticity in employment relations. These conditions addressed seven parameters: work and the concept of labor; private property; the nature of the employment contract; unions and collective bargaining; the treatment of wages; the relationship between managerial prerogative and employee participation; and the crucial role of the state as indirect employer.

Practical implications

Specific minimal or threshold conditions of employment are described to ensure the prospect for authenticity in modern employment relations according to religious traditions. These include just cause employment conditions, unions and collective bargaining support, some form of management consultation/Shura, a living wage and a consultative exercise of managerial prerogative.

Social implications

The study offers prescriptive and analytical aid to ensure assessment of circumstances fostering authenticity in employment relations.

Originality/value

The method and findings are a first effort to clarify thought and aid mutual understanding for inter-faith employment circumstances based on Roman Catholic and Sunni Islam social teachings through a transcultural foundation in cognitional operations. The criterion variable specification of authenticity conditions offers a fully developed basis to support further empirical research in management spirituality, corporate social responsibility and enterprise sustainability.

Article
Publication date: 2 November 2021

Firoz Ahmad and Boby John

This study aims to investigate a reliability-level demand-oriented pharmaceutical supply chain design with maximal anticipated demand coverage. Different hospitals with the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate a reliability-level demand-oriented pharmaceutical supply chain design with maximal anticipated demand coverage. Different hospitals with the particular reliability value associated with the various pharmaceutical items (PIs) are considered. An inter-connected multi-period supply chain comprising manufacturers, distribution centers, hospitals and patients is assumed for the smooth flow of health-care items, enhancing supply chain reliability. A reliability index for PIs is depicted to highlight product preference and facilitate hospitals’ service levels for patients.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed-integer multi-objective programming problem that maximizes maximal demand coverage minimizes the total economic costs and pharmaceutical delivery time is depicted under intuitionistic fuzzy uncertainty. Further, a novel interactive neutrosophic programming approach is developed to solve the proposed pharmaceutical supply chain management (PSCM) model. Each objective’s marginal evaluation is elicited by various sorts of membership functions such as linear, exponential and hyperbolic types of membership functions and depicted the truth, indeterminacy and falsity membership degrees under a neutrosophic environment.

Findings

The proposed PSCM model is implemented on a real case study and solved using an interactive neutrosophic programming approach that reveals the proposed methods’ validity and applicability. An ample opportunity to generate the compromise solution is suggested by tuning various parameters. The outcomes are evaluated with practical managerial implications based on the significant findings. Finally, conclusions and future research scope are addressed based on the proposed work.

Research limitations/implications

The propounded study has some limitations that can be addressed in future research. The discussed PSCM model can be merged with and extended by considering environmental factors such as the health-care waste management system, which is not included in this study. Uncertainty among parameters due to randomness can be incorporated and can be tackled with historical data. Besides, proposed interactive neutrosophic programming approach (INPA), various metaheuristic approaches may be applied to solve the proposed PSCM model as a future research scope.

Practical implications

The strategy advised is to provide an opportunity to create supply chains and manufacturing within India by helping existing manufacturers to expand, identifying new manufacturers, hand-holding and facilitating, teams of officers, engineers and scientists deployed and import only if necessary to meet timelines. Thus, any pharmaceutical company or organization can adopt the production and distribution management initiatives amongst hospitals to strengthen and enable the pharmaceutical company while fighting fatal diseases during emergencies. Finally, managers or policy-makers can take advantage of the current study and extract fruitful pieces of information and knowledge regarding the optimal production and distribution strategies while making decisions.

Originality/value

This research work manifests the demand-oriented extension of the integrated PSCM design with maximum expected coverage, where different hospitals with pre-determined reliability values for various PIs are taken into consideration. The practical managerial implications are explored that immensely support the managers or practitioners to adopt the production and distribution policies for the PIs to ensure the sustainability in supply chain design.

Article
Publication date: 9 April 2018

Shahab E. Saqib, John K.M. Kuwornu, Mokbul Morshed Ahmad and Sanaullah Panezai

The Government of Pakistan has allocated a substantial proportion of agricultural credit to subsistence farmers. The purpose of this paper is to analyze farmers’ access to credit…

Abstract

Purpose

The Government of Pakistan has allocated a substantial proportion of agricultural credit to subsistence farmers. The purpose of this paper is to analyze farmers’ access to credit and its adequacy in the light of current agricultural credit policy of Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

The study has used both secondary and primary data for analysis. Secondary data were collected from the annual reports of Pakistan Economic Survey and State Bank of Pakistan. Primary data were collected from 168 subsistence farmers through households’ survey. Farmers’ credit access and credit adequacy were measured using credit access ratio and credit adequacy ratio, respectively. The Student’s t-test and analysis of variance were used to assess the differences in credit access and adequacy among farmers’ groups (i.e. upper, medium and lower subsistence farmers). Tobit regression model was employed to determine the factors influencing credit adequacy among farmers.

Findings

The empirical results revealed that the amount of credit provided to subsistence farmers was less than stated in the national agricultural credit policy. Upper subsistence farmers had more access to credit than lower and medium subsistence farmers. Lower subsistence farmers had above average access to informal sources of credit, and had below average access to formal sources. The findings also revealed that lower subsistence and medium subsistence farmers had the highest credit inadequacy of funds for investment in agriculture. The results of the Tobit regression revealed that age, education, experience, household size, total landholding of farmer and proportion of own land influenced the agricultural credit adequacy.

Practical implications

Most of the credit was distributed among the upper subsistence farmers. Lower subsistence farmers were still largely dependent on informal credit for farm production activities. The Government of Pakistan performed poor in the implementation of agricultural credit policy, and has failed to help subsistence farmers in their access to formal credit. It is needed to revamp the agricultural credit policy and facilitate credit acquisition by subsistence farmers, particularly for tenant farmers. It is important that the Government may classify the subsistence farmers into subgroups, and reallocate the funds accordingly. This study has lessons and implications for agricultural finance initiatives in developing countries.

Originality/value

Previous studies have focused primarily on access to agricultural credit. However, this study has adopted a holistic approach by using secondary and primary data to assess the farmers’ access to credit and adequacy. In addition, limited literature is available to explore the farmers’ accessibility and adequacy of agricultural credit. Furthermore, this study has focused exclusively on the farmers who are living in the flood-prone areas of Pakistan.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 45 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 December 2022

Mageda A. Sharafeddin and Ahmad Samarji

In a technological era driven by coding, programming and artificial intelligence (AI), there is more need than ever to develop computing skills and knowledge for non-specialist…

Abstract

Purpose

In a technological era driven by coding, programming and artificial intelligence (AI), there is more need than ever to develop computing skills and knowledge for non-specialist students. Nonetheless, the literature on computer science teaching methods of non-scientific majors is not as comprehensive as that of scientific ones.

Design/methodology/approach

Pedagogically, the authors designed and implemented prototyping from John Dewey's pragmatic epistemological lens. Using a mixed methods approach, the authors tested the effectiveness and efficiency of this approach within the same course over four semesters across four academic years.

Findings

As an epistemological pedagogic device, prototyping facilitated learning by doing and experimenting and stimulated graduate students' self-directed learning, engagement and their overall ownership of the learning and teaching process, changing their role from being merely passive recipients of “strange, awkward and unfamiliar” knowledge to active constructors of “relevant and exciting” content knowledge. Such a change was reflected in the significant progress students made, driven by their commitment, motivation and enthusiasm, irrespective of their prior knowledge and age (Generations X, Y and Z). Prototyping also served as an avenue for a “Deweyian Reflection”, where graduate students, after internalizing the acquired computing skills and knowledge, started transferring such skills and knowledge to their professions (journalism and public relations (PR)) and daily practices.

Research limitations/implications

Findings from this study will add to the literature review on this subject matter and will inform future case studies in computer science education for graduate students from non-scientific backgrounds.

Practical implications

This paper reveals that learning by doing/experimenting needs to be accompanied by in-depth reflection to enable students to transfer the acquired knowledge and skills to other settings and contexts beyond that of the lesson, task, or project in hand.

Originality/value

There is little research published on introductory programming courses offered to non-specialized students (i.e. students from non-scientific backgrounds). This study contributes to the body of research on how to effectively engage these students in programming courses informed by John Dewey's pragmatic lens/epistemological lens.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 December 2021

Mohammad Hendijani Zadeh, Michel Magnan, Denis Cormier and Ahmad Hammami

This article aims to explore whether a firm's corporate social responsibility (CSR) transparency alleviates a firm's cash holdings.

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to explore whether a firm's corporate social responsibility (CSR) transparency alleviates a firm's cash holdings.

Design/methodology/approach

CSR transparency ratings encompass both the quantity and the quality of CSR practices, as validated by Bloomberg. While based upon firm-specific disclosure, transparency ratings impound additional information gathered independently by Bloomberg and thus bridge the gap between CSR disclosure and CSR performance. The authors use ordinary least squares estimators, and the authors concentrate on a panel of S&P 500 index companies over the period of 2012–2018 to examine the effect of CSR transparency on corporate cash holdings.

Findings

The authors document that a higher level of CSR transparency induces a lower level of corporate cash holdings. Additional results imply that this negative relationship is more pronounced for firms suffering from high information asymmetry, with low financial reporting quality and for those with weak governance. Further analyses document that higher CSR transparency can help firms to enjoy lower cost of debt and to be less financially constrained, enabling high CSR transparent firms to obtain external financing more easily and at a lower cost, thus lowering the need to hoard cash. Ultimately, the study findings suggest that CSR transparency increases the market value relevance of an additional dollar in cash holdings.

Originality/value

The authors contribute to both research streams of CSR and corporate cash holdings as they provide evidence about the influence of CSR transparency as a monitoring and insurance-like mechanism on corporate cash holdings.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 April 2020

Erik M. Hines, Paul C. Harris, Renae D. Mayes and James L. Moore III

Little attention is given to black male experiences and decision-making process around college-going. A qualitative study (interpretive phenomenological analysis [IPA]) was…

Abstract

Purpose

Little attention is given to black male experiences and decision-making process around college-going. A qualitative study (interpretive phenomenological analysis [IPA]) was conducted using a strengths-based perspective to understand the experiences of three first-generation black men college students attending a predominately white institution. Superordinate themes include perceived benefits to attending college, barriers to college admission and attendance and influential programs and supports. Recommendations for school counselors helping black males are included.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used a narrative approach to illustrate the stories and experiences captured by the three young men who participated in the study. Hays and Singh (2012) suggested using a narrative approach for telling the stories of marginalized groups. IPA (Smith, 1996) was the approach used to identify superordinate themes, because the authors wanted to better understand the participants’ K-16 experiences. As a qualitative approach, IPA provides detailed examinations of personal lived experiences on its own terms rather than pre-existing theoretical preconceptions.

Findings

The participants’ accounts clustered around three superordinate themes: perceived benefits to college, barriers to college admission and attendance and influential programs and supports.

Originality/value

Although there are studies that provide insight on the factors that impact first-generation, black men’s success in attending college, there are few studies that have used a strengths-based perspective to investigate key experiences that lead to college enrollment. Those experiences that lead first-generation black male to attend college are pivotal and provide insight into important points of intervention and support. School counselors and other educators can use these insights to inform practices and the creation of supports for black men in their respective schools.

Details

Journal for Multicultural Education, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-535X

Keywords

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