Aims to understand how training and communication help an organization to learn and gain a competitive advantage. Explores the link between training, communication and…
Aims to understand how training and communication help an organization to learn and gain a competitive advantage. Explores the link between training, communication and measurement with individual and organizational learning by conducting a specific qualitative analysis looking for insights into how the concepts sometimes work and how they fail. Also touches on the general themes that have shaken management and employees over the last 15 years as they struggle to survive and prosper in the global village, and compares this concept with ideas that have been prevalent in organizations since the early 1970s. The objective is to understand how organizations can tap their intangible assets and increase their value to the organization, the individual who holds the knowledge and the society that benefits from a healthy economy.
The purpose of this paper is to present an approach to employ evolvable hardware concepts, to effectively construct flapping‐wing mechanism controllers for micro robots…
The purpose of this paper is to present an approach to employ evolvable hardware concepts, to effectively construct flapping‐wing mechanism controllers for micro robots, with the evolved dynamically complex controllers embedded in a, physically realizable, micro‐scale reconfigurable substrate.
In this paper, a continuous time recurrent neural network (CTRNN)‐evolvable hardware (a neuromorphic variant of evolvable hardware) framework and methodologies are employed in the process of designing the evolution experiments. CTRNN is selected as the neuromorphic reconfigurable substrate with most efficient Minipop Evolutionary Algorithm, configured to drive the evolution process. The uniqueness of the reconfigurable CTRNN substrate preferred for this study is perceived from its universal dynamics approximation capabilities and prospective to realize the same in small area and low power chips, the properties which are very much a basic requirement for flapping‐wing based micro robot control. A simulated micro mechanical flapping insect model is employed to conduct the feasibility study of evolving neuromorphic controllers using the above‐mentioned methodology.
It has been demonstrated that the presented neuromorphic evolvable hardware approach can be effectively used to evolve controllers, to produce various flight dynamics like cruising, steering, and altitude gain in a simulated micro mechanical insect. Moreover, an appropriate feasibility is presented, to realize the evolved controllers in small area and lower power chips, with available fabrication techniques and as well as utilizing the complex dynamics nature of CTRNNs to encompass various controls ability in a architecturally static hardware circuit, which are more pertinent to meet the constraints of micro robot construction and control.
The proposed neuromorphic evolvable hardware approach along with its modules intact (CTRNNs and Minipop) can provide a general mechanism to construct/evolve dynamically complex and optimal controllers for flapping‐wing mechanism based micro robots for various environments with least human intervention. Further, the evolved neuromorphic controllers in simulation study can be successfully transferred to its hardware counterpart without sacrificing its anticipated functionality and realized within a predictable area and power ranges.
From time to time we report cases of food being sold under false and misleading descriptions, where the defence claims the consumer is really expecting too much for her money; like Pip, she has “great expectations.” The sale of food and drugs abounds with deceptive descriptions and devices; clever, subtle, attractive and far more extensively practised than in the old days when analysts and inspectors sought out the adulteration of food. Their annual reports contain the more lurid examples, which are but a fraction of the whole. The price of genuine products has risen out of all proportion in recent years and the introduction of artificial and synthetic materials in substitution is regrettably inevitable, but the importation of price into the offence of misdescription is likely to bring to confusion law that is probably more complete than ever before. It is the essence of all false descriptions that they should in fact mislead, but it is garnishing the point to suggest as many a defending counsel and not a few magistrates do, that the price paid must be taken into account in any alleged misdescription; that if it is low for such an expensive commodity as “cream,” then a purchaser should not be deceived into believing she was obtaining genuine cream, even if the name “cream” was being applied. As the County Magistrates at Leicester were recently asked to decide, “Who would expect real cream in a fourpenny cream bun ?” (p. 70). Still less so, if a fancy name such as “Kreem” is used; all this, Section 47, Food and Drugs Act, 1955, notwithstanding. In the case quoted, evidence was called to show that if a shopper requires a cream bun containing real cream, she will ask for a “dairy cream bun” and that the witnesses would only expect to receive the genuine article if they went to a dairy; that when buying cream confectionery from a confectioner's shop, they did not expect to receive anything but imitation cream.
A simple triangular shell element which incorporates the effects of coupling between membrane and flexural behaviour and avoids membrane locking is described. The element uses a discrete Kirchhoff bending formulation and a constant strain membrane element. For the purpose of permitting inextensional modes and thus avoiding membrane locking, a decomposition technique, which can also be viewed as a strain projection method, is used. The method is illustrated first for a beam element and then for a triangular shell element. Results are presented for a variety of linear static problems to illustrate its accuracy and some highly non‐linear problems to indicate its applicability to collapse analysis.
Explores the application of expert systems in the field of servicesmarketing. Describes the basics of the technology along with severalhypothetical systems. Concludes with…
Explores the application of expert systems in the field of services marketing. Describes the basics of the technology along with several hypothetical systems. Concludes with a brief examination of costs versus benefits, system design and implementation issues, together with the potential for other artificial intelligence technologies to contribute to the management of services marketing. Notes that advanced applications such as expert systems will dramatically change the competitive landscape of the future.
A new four‐node (non‐flat) general quadrilateral shell element for geometric and material non‐linear analysis is presented. The element is formulated using…
A new four‐node (non‐flat) general quadrilateral shell element for geometric and material non‐linear analysis is presented. The element is formulated using three‐dimensional continuum mechanics theory and it is applicable to the analysis of thin and thick shells. The formulation of the element and the solutions to various test and demonstrative example problems are presented and discussed.
Application of the finite element method to the simulation of glass forming processes is described. The forming process results in a coupled thermal/mechanical problem with interaction between the heat transfer analysis of the temperature distribution in the glass and the viscous flow formulation describing the deformation of molten glass being a dominant factor. Particular attention must be given to derivation of the appropriate non‐linear thermal boundary conditions and also to monitoring of the mechanical contact between the glass and mould. The technique described provides both the glass and temperature distribution at each instant of the forming process and thus can provide invaluable information for mould and plunger design, optimum operation times, etc. Numerical examples are provided for both wide neck and narrow neck press and blow forming processes and the results obtained compare well with commercial observations.
The lengthy review of the Food Standards Committee of this, agreed by all public analysts and enforcement officers, as the most complicated and difficult of food groups subject to detailed legislative control, is at last complete and the Committee's findings set out in their Report. When in 1975 they were requested to investigate the workings of the legislation, the problems of control were already apparent and getting worse. The triology of Regulations of 1967 seemed comprehensive at the time, perhaps as we ventured to suggest a little too comprehensive for a rational system of control for arguments on meat contents of different products, descriptions and interpretation generally quickly appeared. The system, for all its detail, provided too many loopholes through which manufacturers drove the proverbial “carriage and pair”. As meat products have increased in range and the constantly rising price of meat, the “major ingredient”, the number of samples taken for analysis has risen and now usually constitutes about one‐quarter of the total for the year, with sausages, prepared meats (pies, pasties), and most recently, minced meat predominating. Just as serial sampling and analysis of sausages before the 1967 Regulations were pleaded in courts to establish usage in the matter of meat content, so with minced meat the same methods are being used to establish a maximum fat content usage. What concerns food law enforcement agencies is that despite the years that the standards imposed by the 1967 Regulations have been in force, the number of infringements show no sign of reduction. This should not really surprise us; there are even longer periods of failures to comply; eg., in the use of preservatives which have been controlled since 1925! What a number of public analysts have christened the “beefburger saga” took its rise post‐1967 and shows every indication of continuing into the distant future. Manufacturers appear to be trying numerous ploys to reduce the content below the Regulation 80% mainly by giving their products new names. Each year, public analysts report a flux of new names and ingenious defences; eg, “caterburgers” and similar concocted nomenclature, and the defence that because the name does not incorporate a meat, it is outside the statutory standard.